Authors:F. Horváth, Zs. Molnár, J. Bölöni, Zs. Pataki, L. Polgár, A. Révész, K. Oláh, D. Krasser and E. Illyés
The survey results of the MÉTA program are managed with centralised relational database management system (MS SQL 2000) developed and set up in a local area network. Besides the MÉTA database server, a publishing server, an archiving server and a GIS workstation were applied. The core information entities of the MÉTA database are: information subproject, MÉTA quadrate, MÉTA hexagon, (semi-)natural habitat, potential vegetation with numerous habitats, landscape ecology and land use attributes, and surveyor. This information is coded in the nine main tables of the normalised database. In the recent state there are almost 1,500,000 records in the main tables that are managed in 241 independent fields. The published version of the MÉTA database supports the query service, and handles this information in 7 denormalised main tables. This much more redundant version is 11 GB in size. The 20.6% (179 man-month) of the human resources in the MÉTA program were devoted to the information tasks (set up and preparation, MÉTA database and information system development, replenishment and quality assessment, MÉTA query, GIS and printing services) between 2002 and 2007. The basic structure of the MÉTA database version 1.2 is finalised and the main functions regarding data processing have been developed. The accomplishment is higher than 90%, quality assessment is under way, while scientific verification and data harmonisation are started. The area of (semi-)natural and degraded vegetation of Hungary is estimated to 1,800,000 hectares (19.4% of the country) of which the natural, semi-natural is about 1,200,000 hectares (12.9% of the country). All of these are highly fragmented and unevenly distributed over the country. It is shown by several basic figures, professional content and quality measure facts of the database. There is also a fact sheet of surveyors that shapes the important characters of their field experience profile, too.
Authors:R. Hajianfar, Zs. Polgár, I. Wolf, A. Takács, I. Cernák and J. Taller
Late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive diseases of potato. In the host an arsenal of genes may contribute to the resistance against the pathogen. In the presently available cultivars besides the so called field resistance which is conditioned by an unknown number of minor genes, race specific resistance genes were introgressed. Recently, broad spectrum resistance genes were identified, isolated and incorporated in breeding programs. The inbreeding depression that is characteristic for potato and the different sexual crossability problems associated with the potential resistance gene sources further complicate the development of cultivars with durable late blight resistance. The task to produce genotypes with resistance is challenged also by the recent occurrence of rapidly changing genotypes of the pathogen which are able to reproduce also sexually nowadays worldwide. Due to its importance, the genetic background of late blight resistance is intensively studied. The growing number of isolated major resistance genes and other genes involved in resistance response, as well as the identified QTLs allow the development of molecular tools which may be effectively used in breeding. In this review the complex status of resistance in potato to P. infestans and the breeding aspects of it is discussed.
Authors:R. Tömösközi-Farkas, M. Berki, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, I. Wolf and Zs. Polgár
We have investigated the Total Glycoalcaloid (TGA), nitrite, and nitrate contents of some Hungarian and foreign potato cultivars in relation to the effect of different combination of fertilisers and green manure, late blight management strategies (none, programmed, or prediction based spraying), and irrigation regime for three years. The Hungarian cultivars have exotic potato species like S. acaule, S. demissum, S. stoloniferum, S. vernei, or S. tub. ssp. andigenum in their genetic background as sources of resistance genes. No effect of fertilisers or irrigation was found on the level of glycoalkaloids and nitrate contents, which were influenced mostly by the genotype and season. In conclusion, the absolute amount and the presence of different antinutritive components of potato tubers were influenced by the technology, genotype, and season in a complex manner. These results in general prove that ware potato production utilising intensive commercial agrotechnical practices and common cultivars is safe regarding the nitrate and TGA content of tubers.
Authors:R. Tömösközi-Farkas, Zs. Polgár, M. Nagy-Gasztonyi, V. Horváth, T. Renkecz, K. Simon, F. Boross, Z. Fabulya and H. Daood
Anti-nutritive components in multi resistant potato cultivars were investigated in relation to conventional and organic farming for three years. Glycoalkaloids, nitrate, nitrite, asparagine, and glutamine contents of tubers were examined. Farming technology was found not to have an effect on the level of glycoalkaloids, which was influenced mostly by the genotype and season. Nitrogen fertilisation caused significant increase in nitrate, asparagine, and glutamine contents as compared to organic farming. Nitrite content was found to be more independent of farming technologies than nitrate. Tubers of cultivar Rioja had the lowest nitrate content irrespective of season or technology. In conclusion, the absolute amount and changes of different anti-nutritive components of potato tubers were influenced differently by the technology, genotype, and season in a complex manner. Organic farming had no effect on the glycoalkaloid content, but the nitrate levels had a tendency to be lower compared to conventional farming. This can be seen as a positive effect of organic farming.