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Abstract  

Isotope excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used for the determination of the major components, silver and copper, of ancient coins. A ring shaped 125I source was used for excitation. Various methods were developed and compared for quantitative evaluation in order to eliminate matrix effects and the effects caused by the differences in geometry. The method proposed by the authors ensures determination with acceptable error using certified standard samples of alloys. The results of this method were compared with those of prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and with data from contemporary written sources.

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Abstract  

A quantitative evaluation method was elaborated to determine the gold, silver and copper concentration of high gold content objects in a non-destructive way. The spectrum evaluation method rules out the effect of the differences in size, shape and surface. A long measuring time allows qualitative analysis of the trace elements: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cd, In and Zn. Using this method, about 200 golden coins and jewellery from the 10th-15th century Hungary and Byzantium were analyzed. Some of the results are presented here.

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The aim of our study was to survey the geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) concentrations of the sediment and that of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) flesh in three different Hungarian fish farms (clayey, marshy, and sodic ponds).

Results showed that the concentrations of off-flavour compounds of the sediment and fish fillets were related to the natural environment. The GSM concentration of bottom soil samples was higher, than MIB in each fish farm. Both off-flavour compounds were the highest in the marshy fish pond and the lowest in the sodic pond. In case of fish flesh, significant differences were found between the farms in GSM level and fat content. In the fish flesh the same tendency was found as in the sediments, but surprisingly, MIB concentration was higher in the fillets, referring to accumulation.

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In a pot experiment the effect of bentonite and zeolite doses [0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 g·kg soil -1 ] was studied on some chemical properties and ten soil microbiological and enzymological properties of an acidic [pH(H 2 O) = 5.65] humic sandy soil [WRB: Lamellic Arenosol (Dystric)], as well as on the biomass of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.), as test plant. The pot experiment was set up in 2007 and 2008 at the Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science of the Debrecen University in three replications. The average results of the two year experiment can be summarized as follows: The pH increased due to the effect of small and medium amendment doses. The bentonite treatments proved to be more effective than the zeolite doses. As the pH increased, the hydrolytic acidity – in case of the bentonite treatments significantly – decreased. Concerning the easily available nutrient content of soil, the small and medium amendment doses turned out to be effective. The large bentonite doses reduced the nitrate-N content, the easily available phosphorus and potassium contents of soil. Large dose zeolite treatments decreased the nitrate-N content, but increased both the phosphorus and potassium content of soil, in most cases significantly. Regarding the measured soil microbial parameters, the small and medium amendment doses were the most effective. The bentonite and zeolite treatments increased the biomass of perennial ryegrass, especially the small and medium doses of bentonite and the large dose of zeolite brought about significant increases. According to the statistical analyses moderate and close correlations were found between the parameters studied. In the bentonite treatments a close correlation was established between the aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria and saccharase enzyme activity (r = 0.864) of soil. In the case of zeolite treatments, a close correlation was found between the number of nitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass C (r = 0.911) of soil.

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In a long-term fertilization field experiment set up in Debrecen-Látókép in 1983 on calcareous chernozem soil the changes in the chemical and microbiological characteristics related to the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the soil are shown and evaluated. The soil samples were taken in the 26th and 27th years of the experiment, (in 2009, 2010) from maize monoculture and tri-culture. In addition to the effects of fertilizer doses, correlations among soil chemical and microbiological properties were established; and the various ratios among some microbiological parameters were also evaluated.The elements of NPK fertilizers increased together with the doses, so the elements’ effect cannot be separated, the minimum factor is not identifiable.With increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH decreased in both the mono- and triculture, parallelly there was a significant increase in hydrolytic acidity. A close negative correlation was proved between the pH(H2O) and hydrolytic acidity and pH(KCl) and hydrolytic acidity. An increased soil nutrient content was recorded in each NPK treatment, the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in a higher proportion than that of potassium.Among the measured parameters of the carbon and nitrogen cycles fertilization had a positive influence on the organic carbon (OC), organic nitrogen (ON), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) contents, the number of cellulose decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, the nitrate exploration and CO2-production, while it mainly had negative effects on the investigated enzymes (saccharase and urease) activity.Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters, fertilization seems to have promoted the increase in nitrogen-containing organic compounds, because the OC/ON and MBC/MBN ratios decreased due to the effect of different doses of NPK fertilizers in both cultures.

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Abstract  

Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was applied for the analysis of historical silver coins to determine the elemental composition in a fast and non-destructive way. Ag, Cu and trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Hg, Pd, Zr, Mo, Rh, Ru) were determined in coins of King Mathias (Hungary, 1458–1490). A new data evaluation technique was used to avoid the problems arising from the different sizes, surfaces and geometries. The appropriateness of this method was confirmed by analysing certified silver/copper standard alloys.

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Capsaicin is a well-known component of red pepper. Recent studies have shown that capsaicin could prevent gastric ulcer provoked by various NSAID-s like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Primary objective of this human clinical phase I trial was to investigate whether two different doses of capsaicin co-administered with ASA could alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation. 15 healthy male subjects were involved in the study and treated orally with 400 μg capsaicin, 800 μg capsaicin, 500 mg ASA, 400 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA and 800 μg capsaicin+500 mg ASA. Blood was drawn before and 1, 2, 6 and 24 hours after the drug administration. After that epinephrine induced platelet aggregation was measured by optical aggregometry. Between treatments, volunteers had a 6-day wash-out period. Our results showed that capsaicin had no effect on platelet aggregation, while as expected, ASA monotherapy resulted in a significant and clinically effective platelet aggregation inhibition (p ≤ 0.001). The combined ASA-capsaicin therapies reached equivalent effectiveness in platelet aggregation inhibition as ASA monotherapy. Our investigation proved that capsaicin did not influence the inhibitory effect of ASA on platelet aggregation, thus the capsaicin-ASA treatment would combine the antiplatelet effect of ASA with the possible gastroprotection of capsaicin.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: H. A. Schreiber, J. S. Harding, C. J. Altamirano, O. Hunt, P. D. Hulseberg, Zs. Fabry, and Matyas Sandor

Abstract

Granulomas are the interface between host and mycobacteria, and are crucial for the surivival of both species. While macrophages are the main cellular component of these lesions, different lymphocyte subpopulations within the lesions also play important roles. Lymphocytes are continuously recruited into these inflammatory lesions via local vessels to replace cells that are either dying or leaving; however, their rate of replacement is not known. Using a model of granuloma transplantation and fluorescently labeled cellular compartments we report that, depending on the subpopulation, 10–80%, of cells in the granuloma are replaced within one week after transplantation. CD4+ T cells specific for Mycobacterium antigen entered transplanted granulomas at a higher frequency than Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells by one week. Interestingly, a small number of T lymphocytes migrated out of the granuloma to secondary lymphoid organs. The mechanisms that define the differences in recruitment and efflux behind each subpopulation requires further studies. Ultimately, a better understanding of lymphoid traffic may provide new ways to modulate, regulate, and treat granulomatous diseases.

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: A. Gyenes, G.L. Sándor, B. Csákány, Zs. Récsán, G. Rudas, Z.Z. Nagy, and E. Maka

Abstract

A case of a 13-year-old girl after being injured on the left eyeball by a stick from a cage, is presented. Along vitreous haemorrhage, retinal oedema and ischaemia, the disc was replaced by a cavity. Multimodal imaging was performed, which confirmed the optic nerve damage. The eye had no light perception anymore. Our case is a demonstration for complete avulsion of the optic nerve after blunt injury.

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