Authors:M. Jolánkai, Á. Tarnawa, K. Kassai, H. Nyárai, and Zs. Szentpétery
Agriculture is highly affected by climate change. Climate change impacts may influence almost all fields of agricultural activities; production efficiency, quantitative and qualitative deterioration of crop yields produced for alimentary purposes, and determine post-harvest manifestation of agricultural products inducing hazard in the field of food safety, transport, storage and distribution. Soil-climatic conditions, amount and distribution of precipitation, anomalies and extremities of temperature as well as various manifestation of air movement from stand still to storms are some of the main factors that may influence agriculture. Pollution has been considered solely as the presence of unfavourable alien matter in the environment, but in reality pollution is far more than that. Agri-environmental pollution is largely independent of mankind, since many pollution or degradation processes may begin with no direct relationship to human activities. Soil degradation, or irreversible damage to natural ecosystems by climatic factors (drought, flood, water logging, salinity) are the most frequent consequences. Biological pollution, like weed infestation, epidemics and gradations, pollen allergy, the poisonous effect of mycotoxins on farm animals and humans, new pests and diseases, the emission of greenhouse gases, and biological factors which cause quality deterioration represent an increasing pressure on agri-environment. This paper is intended to give an overview of some research activities and their results in relation with climatic aspects of agri-environmental pollution in Hungary.
Authors:Zs. Szentpétery, M. Jolánkai, Cs. Kleinheincs, and G. Szöllősi
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials, which were conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Nitrogen fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40 + 40 and 80 + 40 were applied at tillering and after anthesis fazes (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5.). The nitrogen used was 36 % ammonium-nitrate in. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment we analysed the changes of quantity and baking quality of yield. Amount of rainfall during the vegetation period had a significant effect on wheat yield. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period — especially in April and May — had a significant effect, too. It turned out that in drought periods nitrogen top-dressing has a great importance. In the dry 2001–2003 years even the 40 kg/ha dose resulted in extra yield. 80 and 120 kg/ha fertilizer rates was even more effective. The increasing dose of nitrogen top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improving effect in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially great improvement was observed in the case of foreign varieties. Nitrogen top-dressing stabilized the falling number values.
Authors:Zs. Szentpétery, Cs. Kleinheincz, G. Szöllősi, and M. Jolánkai
The effects of nitrogen (N) applications on Hungarian, French and Serbian winter wheat cultivars were studied in field trials conducted from 1996 to 2003 in a central Hungarian region, Hatvan-Nagygombos. Fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80, 120, 40+40 and 80+40 kg ha-1 active ingredient were applied at tillering and after anthesis (Feekes 3 and Feekes 10.5). The N-fertilizer applied was ammonium-nitrate in 34% cc. Split-split plot design with four replications was used. In the experiment the changes of quantity and baking quality of the yield were analysed. Differences in rainfall during the vegetation period - especially in April and May - had a strong effect on wheat yield. In drought periods N top-dressing had a great importance. In the dry 2001-2003 years, the 80 and 120 kg ha-1 fertilizer doses were the most effective. The increasing dose of N top-dressing and its division resulted in this trial in an outstanding quality improvement in spite of the unfavourable ecological circumstances. Especially, great improvement was seen in case of foreign varieties that were of lower quality compared to the Hungarian ones. The top-dressing stabilized the falling number values in the 250-350 top range.
Authors:Zs. Szentpétery, Cs. Kleinheincz, A. Tarnawa, and M. Jolánkai
Since the change of the Hungarian agriculture the increased weed infection causes great losses in wheat. It is necessary to apply herbicides on the weedy field as harvest approaches to make the harvest easier and avoid losses. In our small plot trials at Nagygombos, between 1996 and 2002 the applicability of fluroxypyr, bromoxynil, dicamba, tribenuron-methyl and MCPA in late weed control was examined in four wheat varieties. We found that the late application against weeds did not have a total eliminating effect, however reduced the number of weeds, restricted their development and the reproductive organs below and above ground dried. Weed seed infection was slowed down and the dried stems made harvesting easier. In the last three years, we found that fluroxypyr (Starane) and tribenuron-methyl (Granstar) impeded a little the maturing and water extraction in the milk maturation stage of wheat, but this difference was not seen in full maturation. Examinations showed that after late weed control, all of above-mentioned chemicals except bromoxynil (Pardner) was discharged at the time of the harvest and were under the maximum residue tolerance limit. So the experimentally involved herbicides can be used for late weed control - in accordance with international experiences.