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  • Author or Editor: Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth x
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The European Food Safety Authority recommends a minimum current of 1.3 Amps for the electrical head-only stunning of pigs. However, it is stated as well that ‘the technical reference data for head-only electrical stunning of pigs such as 1.3 Amps are either rather old or worked out under experimental laboratory conditions’. This study was carried out to verify the electrical parameters of pig stunning under commercial conditions. Altogether 145 fattener pigs (body weight range: 30–150 kg, median 109 kg) were tested at four different private slaughterhouses in Hungary where head-only electrical stunners were used with different constant voltage settings. In each case the following data were recorded: individual liveweight (kg), current (A) and voltage (V) (measured with an individually developed analogue device placed in the circuit), current duration (s), effectiveness of stunning, grading of carcass. Correlations between these parameters and effectiveness were examined. Besides that, any correlation between the test parameters and impedance of head was examined. In 128 out of the 145 cases the stunning was effective (88.3%). Effectiveness was significantly related to current but not to other parameters such as voltage and duration of load. Impedance of head was not correlated with the size of the animal and the meat grading scores. Generally, it was concluded that the use of a single electrical parameter (e.g. a minimum current of 1.3 A) as a prerequisite of good stunning is not ideal.

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After head-only electrical stunning of pigs sequential animal-based measurements were carried out right after stunning as well as before and after bleeding in order to analyse how unconsciousness is achieved and maintained in relation to recorded and calculated technical parameters such as electric current intensity, electric work, duration of stunning, and stun-to-bloodletting period. The measurements were performed at three different slaughterhouses on 9 different days under routine slaughtering conditions. The data of 405 pigs were analysed. The effectiveness of stunning was measured by the number of parameters at two (adequate and acceptable) levels. Current intensity had a predominant effect on the effectiveness of stunning and on the maintenance of unconsciousness. The duration of stunning played a role only as part of the electric work, which manifested itself in the maintenance of unconsciousness. Stunning proved acceptable in 99% of the cases, provided that the minimum current intensity of 1.02 Amp was secured. In 99% of the cases unconsciousness could be maintained at an acceptable level beyond bloodletting when the electric work was at least 8,089.38 Joules. Recovery of consciousness depends on the stun-to-stick period: the best time of bloodletting is less than 32 seconds from the end of stunning.

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Authors: Tamás Tóth, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Ferenc Pajor, Róbert Kocsis, Alexandra Juhász, János Tőzsér and Péter Póti

The length of the streak canal and the area of the teat end were studied by ultrasound during the dry period in 40 Holstein-Friesian cows. In the first week, the values of these teat parameters decreased significantly (P < 0.05) and this did not change significantly until the middle of the dry period. In the last month of gestation, the length of the streak canal was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while the area of the teat end did not decrease significantly (P > 0.05). At each of the five examination times, a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.85-0.94) was found between the two teat parameters. In healthy cows, the streak canal and the area of teat end, both of which are part of the udder’s defence system, can regenerate sufficiently during the dry period, minimising the risk of contamination through the streak canal and the development of mastitis. If the regeneration of this defence system fails, the chances of infection through the streak canal increase.

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Authors: Orsolya Balogh, Hedvig Fébel, Gyula Huszenicza, Margit Kulcsár, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Tamás Endrődi and György Gábor

The aim of this study was to identify relationships among seasonal differences of fertility, metabolic parameters and appearance of irregular luteal forms in high-yielding dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian cows were put on the Provsynch regimen in winter (n = 10) and in summer (n = 10). Blood sampling (starting 35 days post partum) and rectal ultrasound examinations (starting post insemination) were carried out once a week in each examination period. Metabolic [plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum beta-carotene] and endocrine parameters [plasma thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and insulin levels] were measured. In summer, two cows were excluded from the study because of metritis and none of the remaining animals became pregnant, but 6 of the 8 cows had irregular luteal forms (ILF) on their ovaries. In winter, one cow was excluded because of metritis and 6 of the 9 cows became pregnant, while 2 of the 3 open cows had irregular luteal forms. In summer the mean plasma NEFA and BHB concentrations were significantly higher, while serum carotene and plasma IGF-I concentrations were significantly lower than in winter. The high plasma NEFA concentration found in summer seemed to be in association with the lower body condition score (BCS) caused by depressed appetite. In conclusion, statistical analysis supports the hypothesis that increased plasma NEFA and BHB and decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations may result in reduced fertility in summer. These changes may be associated with the more frequent appearance of ILFs and probably have a negative effect on ovarian function and/or oocyte quality.

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Authors: Orsolya Balogh, Ernő Túry, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, John Kastelic and György Gábor

The primary objective of this study was to use macroscopic and histological features of corpora lutea with a cavity and anovulatory cystic ovarian structures, present in 90 pairs of abattoir-derived dairy cow ovaries, as the basis to clarify the nomenclature of ovarian structures. Excluding morphologically normal ovarian fol-licles (antrum < 2 cm, wall < 1 mm), there were 27 fluid-filled ovarian structures. Ovulatory structures > 16 mm in diameter were designated as Group A (cavity ≤ 10 mm and wall > 10 mm) or Group B (cavity > 10 mm and wall < 10 mm). The volume of luteal tissue was less (P < 0.05) in Group B than in Group A, whereas that of a solid corpus luteum (CL) was intermediate (least square means ± SEM: 72 ± 1.92, 11.22 ± 1.57 and 5.84 ± 1.92 cm3, respectively). There was a greater proportion (P < 0.05) of small luteal cells in Group B compared to a solid CL, whereas Group A was intermediate (58.6 ± 5.3, 37.4 ± 5.3 and 44.0 ± 4.4%, respectively). Connective tissue was thicker (P < 0.05) in Group B than in Group A (295.4 ± 46.9 vs. 153.9 ± 38.2 μm). Based on the above-mentioned characteristics and differences, Groups A and B were designated as a CL with a cavity and a cystic CL, respectively. Furthermore, there were three groups of anovulatory ovarian structures. Structures in Group C were termed persistent/anovulatory follicles (overall diameter and wall thickness ≤ 20 and 1–3 mm, respectively). Finally, Groups D and E were designated as a follicle-fibrous cyst and a follicle-luteinised cyst (based on histological structure) for anovulatory structures with an overall diameter and wall thickness of ≥ 20 and ≤ 3 mm, and ≥ 20 and ≥ 3 mm, respectively.

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Authors: János Tomcsányi, Béla Bózsik, György Rokszin, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth and Lajos Katona

A pitvarfibrilláció hazai prevalenciájára és incidenciájára nincsen ismert adat. A hazai epidemiológiai adatok a nemzetközi publikációk adataiból következtethetők, habár egyedüli adottságként egy egységes biztosítói adatbázis áll a rendelkezésre. Célkitűzés: A magyarországi teljes lakosságra vonatkozó pitvarfibrillációs prevalencia és incidencia meghatározása. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisának felhasználása a 2007., 2008. és 2009. évekre vonatkozóan az adott évet megelőző, 2002-től ismert adatok figyelembevételével a pitvarfibrillációs kód megjelenése szempontjából. Eredmények: A pitvarfibrilláció prevalenciája ma Magyarországon 2,37–2,67%. Egy adott évben csak a betegek fele kerül kórházi vagy szakrendelői ellenőrzésre. Következtetések: Ez az első olyan felmérés, ami teljes országos lefedettségben vizsgálja a pitvarfibrilláció prevalenciáját. Már az öt–hét éves időintervallum figyelembevételével számított 2,37–2,67% prevalencia is lényegesen magasabb betegszámot jelent, mint amivel eddig számoltak. A rendelkezésre álló adatok matematikai modellezésével azonban a teljes magyarországi betegszám 296 493, ami 2,95%-os prevalenciát jelent. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 339–342.

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A 2-es típusú diabetes mellitus (2TDM) kezelése terén új antidiabetikumok váltak elérhetőkké. A vizsgálat célja az volt, hogy felmérjük a 2TDM gyógyszeres kezelési szokásainak változását 2001–2014 között. A vizsgálatot az Országos Egészségügyi Pénztár adatbázisának elemzésével végeztük. Az újonnan felismert 2TDM éves előfordulása 75 700 esetről 33 700 esetre csökkent. A 2TDM prevalenciája fokozatosan emelkedett, majd később stagnáló jellegűvé vált (2014-ben 727 000 eset). A szulfonilurea-monoterápia gyakorisága 64%-ról 35%-ra csökkent, a metformin-monoterápia gyakorisága 19%-ról 42%-ra nőtt. Gyógyszeres kezelés szükségessége esetén 2014-ben a metformin volt a leggyakrabban választott első készítmény (66%), ezt követte a szulfonilureák választása (16%). Első alkalommal DPP-4-gátlót 20 362 beteg, GLP-1-mimetikumot pedig 4996 beteg kapott 2014-ben. Öt évvel a szulfonilureakezelés megkezdése után (2010–2014 között) metforminra gyakrabban volt szükség második szerként (39,0%), mint a szulfonilureára öt évvel a metforminkezelés megkezdése után (22,9%). Az antidiabetikumok felírási szokásai az évek során megváltoztak, követve a szakmai irányelvek ajánlásait. Várható, hogy a terápiás szokások a közeljövőben tovább módosulnak. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(20): 770–778.

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Napjainkban a cukorbetegséggel kapcsolatos adatbázis-elemzések új lehetőségként vonultak be a klinikai kutatások körébe. Hazánkban az egészségügyi ellátásban részesülők központi betegregiszterét az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisa jelenti. Ide futnak be a hazai fekvő- és járóbeteg-szakellátás havi adatai, illetve a gyógyszerforgalommal (gyógyszertári receptkiváltással) kapcsolatos heti jelentések. A retrospektív vizsgálat célja az volt, hogy a szerzők az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisát közel másfél évtizedre (2001–2014) visszatekintően diabetológiai szempontból elemezzék, s így adatokat nyerjenek a cukorbetegséggel kapcsolatos morbiditási és mortalitási mutatók alakulásáról. Adatokat gyűjtöttek az ellátás költségvonzatáról, a kórházi kezelés jellemzőiről, illetve a terápiás szokások alakulásáról is. A jelenlegi dolgozat az elemzés módszertanát tekinti át. A szerzők remélik, hogy adataik értékesen fogják majd bővíteni a cukorbeteg-ellátás alakulásáról rendelkezésünkre álló eddigi ismereteket. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1259–1265.

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Authors: Kinga Pápa, Ákos Máthé, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Ágnes Sterczer, Roland Psáder, Csaba Hetyey, Péter Vajdovich and Károly Vörös

Medical records of 80 dogs diagnosed with acute pancreatitis during a 4-year period were evaluated regarding history, breed predilection, clinical signs and additional examination findings. Cases were selected if compatible clinical symptoms, increased serum activity of amylase or lipase and morphologic evidence of pancreatitis by ultrasonography, laparotomy or necropsy were all present. Like in other studies, neutered dogs had an increased risk of developing acute pancreatitis. Although breed predilection was consistent with earlier reports, some notable differences were also observed. Apart from Dachshunds, Poodles, Cocker Spaniels and Fox Terriers, the sled dogs (Laikas, Alaskan Malamutes) also demonstrated a higher risk for pancreatitis according to our results. Concurrent diseases occurred in 56 dogs (70%), diabetes mellitus (n = 29, 36%) being the most common. Clinical signs of acute pancreatitis were similar to those observed in other studies. The study group represented a dog population with severe acute pancreatitis, having a relatively high mortality rate (40%) compared to data of the literature. Breed, age, gender, neutering and body condition had no significant association with the outcome. Hypothermia (p = 0.0413) and metabolic acidosis (p = 0.0063) correlated significantly with poor prognosis and may serve as valuable markers for severity assessment in canine acute pancreatitis.

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Authors: László Z. Reinitz, Gábor Bajzik, Rita Garamvölgyi, Bianka Benedek, Örs Petneházy, András Lassó, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Borbála Lőrincz and Péter Sótonyi

Despite numerous studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its importance during hydrocephalus or myelography, no reliable values exist about its overall volume in dogs. In this study, our aim was to measure the intracranial (IC) volume of CSF in dogs and assess its possible relationship with body size and the symmetry of the lateral ventricles. We ran a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence on the central nervous system of 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs between 3–5 years of age and 7.5–35.0 kg body weight. A validated semiautomatic segmentation protocol was implemented to segment the CSF and measure its volume. Values for the volume of the ventricular compartment were between 0.97 and 2.94 ml, with 62.1 ± 11.7% in the lateral ventricles, 17.6 ± 4.9% in the third ventricle, 4.9 ± 1.6% in the aqueductus mesencephali and 15.5 ± 6.6% in the fourth ventricle. In 11 cases a significant asymmetry was found between the lateral ventricles. The results suggest that it may be normal for a dog to have one of the lateral ventricles 1.5 times larger than the other. The correlation between body weight and CSF volume was linear, indicating that the current dosage protocols for myelography, based on a hypothetical proportional relationship with body weight, may have to be revised.

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