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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ivan Toplak, Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Jasna Prodanov-Radulović, Zsolt Becskei, Radoslav Došen and Tamaš Petrović

Recent variants of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were obtained from tissues of domestic pigs with porcine circovirus associated disease and from randomly selected wild boar samples from Serbia and Slovenia. A 450-base-pair nucleotide sequence was obtained by PCR from the ORF2. The derived nucleotide and amino acid sequences were aligned and compared to the corresponding region of closely related PCV2 sequences determined in previous years and retrieved from the GenBank. The 30 Serbian and 17 Slovenian PCV2 sequences clustered into three previously determined genotypes (PCV2a: 7), (PCV2b: 38) and (PCV2d: 2). Three major variable regions, concerning 29 amino acid position substitutions within the ORF2, were observed, which further supports the segregation of the detected strains into three separate genotypes. This study indicates that PCV2b is the predominant genotype in Serbia and Slovenia and the detected PCV2 strains are closely related to those previously described in Europe and in other parts of the world.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zsolt Becskei, Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, Miklós Rusvai, Gyula Balka, Csaba Jakab, Tamaš Petrović and Milijana Knežević

The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Nedjeljko Karabasil, Nikola Čobanović, Ivana Vučićević, Silvana Stajković, Zsolt Becskei, Petra Forgách and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević

The aim of this study was to determine the association of lung lesions with carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs and to describe the main morphological features associated with lung lesions. Macroscopic lesions on the lungs were detected in 67.09% of a total of 79 pigs examined. Histopathological examination revealed that acute and chronic interstitial pneumonia represented the commonest changes, detected in 26.67% and 33.33% of the cases, respectively. Bronchopneumonia was found in 33.33% of the cases. By immunohistochemical examination, 26.67% of the lungs showed the presence of severe peribronchiolar and perialveolar infiltration composed predominantly of CD3+ T lymphocytes, which finding may be indicative of viral pneumonia. Regarding the production traits, it was confirmed that pigs with severe lung lesions had the lowest liveweight, hot carcass weight and meatiness, the highest pH value 45 min after slaughtering (pH45) and the highest incidence of dark, firm, dry (DFD) and pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat. The presence of lung lesions significantly downgraded carcass value and caused a significant deterioration in pork quality.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, József Özvegy, Nikola Krstić, Miklós Rusvai, Csaba Jakab, Zoran Stanimirović and Zsolt Becskei

Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.

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