Takecallis arundinariae (Essig 1917) is a new record for the Hungarian aphid fauna was collected from Phyllostachys iridescens (C. Y. Yao and S. Y. Chen 1980) bamboo species. All adult specimens collected in October and November were alatae or L3–L4 nymphs bearing wing initiatives. Takecallis arundinariae is a medium-sized pale yellow aphid with a series of imbricate, conspicuous, elongate dark spots on the abdominal tergites, antennae are longer than body. Takecallis taiwanus (Takahashi 1926) nymphs were present on P. iridescens, in Debrecen on the beginning of June. By mid June the nymphs developed alatae. T. taiwanus is medium-sized green aphid. Nymphs are dark green with rows of black spines. Alatae bear on abdominal tergites I–II pair of larger imbricated tubercles with setae. Tubercles on abdominal tergites III–IV are smaller. From tergite V and on the following segments tubercles are small, inconspicuous, but pair of setae is present.
Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of aphid infestation on Artemisia vulgaris L. in 4 locations. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841) colonies were present on the youngest parts of the shoots each place. On one of the locations the gall forming Cryptosiphum artemisiae Buckton, 1789 was present. Gall containing shoots of the mugwort were collected to rear aphid nymphs to adult. On these shoots the overlooked Brachycaudus cardui Linnaeus, 1758 individuals developed into apterae. Artemisia absinthium L. was present on one location. This plant accommodated Macrosiphoniella absinthii (Linnaeus, 1758).
Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of 14 aphid species on gymnosperm trees. The most frequent conifer species was: Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold 1785 (21 locations) followed by Pinus sylvestris L.1753, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (4 locations), Juniperus communis L. 1753 (3 locations) and Juniperus virginiana L. 1753 (1 location), Thuja occidentalis L.1753 (2 locations), Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (1 location).
Eulachnus agilis (Kaltenbach, 1843) was the most frequently collected aphid species on Pinus nigra, followed by Cinara brauni Börner, 1940, Cinara schimitscheki Börner, 1940, Eulachnus rileyi (Williams, 1911) and Cinara acutirostris Hille Ris Lambers, 1956. The less frequent Cinara species was Cinara piniphila (Ratzeburg, 1844) which is a new record for the Hungarian fauna. Pinus sylvestris accommodated three aphid species: Cinara intermedia Pašek, 1954 was the most frequent, followed by Cinara pinea (Mordvilko, 1895) and Eulachnus agilis. Picea abies accommodated Cinara piceae, Cinara pruinosa (Hartig, 1841), Cinara piceicola (Cholodkovsky, 1896) and Sacchiphantes abietis L. 1758. Juniperus communis and J. virginiana most frequently hosted Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773). Eulachnus agilis occurred once on Juniperus communis. A single aphid species Cinara tujafilina was found on Thuja occidentalis and Thuja plicata.
Plant sucking aphids cause both
quantitative and qualitative yield losses in cereals; moreover
aphid-transmitted viruses are responsible for other quantitative and
qualitative damages, thus direct or indirect effects of aphid infection are in
focus of interest. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is determined primarily
by the protein content and composition, the gluten proteins (glutenins,
gliadins) being the prime factors. Allelic composition of the gliadin- and
glutenin loci as well as the absolute amount and/or the relative ratio of
gliadins to glutenins are very important in dough making and in determining
baking quality. Wheat plants were caged
at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1% methyl
parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5
alata individuals of Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae
and Rhopalosiphum padi. Flour from grains originating from plants infected
artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and
total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. It was found that aphid
infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total
protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin
content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected
plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat
flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected
control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by
M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae infection followed by R. padi at
high-abundance and low-abundance, respectively. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio
was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may
be suggested that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of