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The article is the fourth part of a series analysing the lexicographical presence of Italian in Hungarian language: after names of persons places and institutions the Author focuses now on trade marks. She shows the specialities of this sector of the lexicon: the intentions of marketing, the lexicalization process and the high speed of changes. She provides a large range of examples, cathegorized by a linguistical tipology: abbreviations, derived and composed names, sintagmatical and phrasal ones.

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Authors: Maria Teresa Angelini and Zsuzsanna Fábián

This paper proposes an explanation of the apparent scope inversion attested in sentences pronounced with a rise fall intonation contour. It argues that a left-peripheral quantifier pronounced with a (fall-)rise is in topic position (Spec,TopP). A topic phrase must refer to an individual already present in the domain of discourse-that which will be predicated about in the sentence. Non-individual-denoting expressions, among them quantifiers, can also be made suitable for the topic role if they are assumed to denote a property which the rest of the sentence predicates some higher-order property about. A quantifier functioning as a contrastive topic denotes a property of plural individuals, and its apparent narrow scope arises from the fact that it is considered to be a predicate over a variable inherent in the lexical representation of the verb.

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Authors: Máté Tolvaj, Márton Tokodi, Bálint Károly Lakatos, Alexandra Fábián, Adrienn Ujvári, Fjolla Zhubi Bakija, Zsuzsanna Ladányi, Zsófia Tarcza, Béla Merkely, and Attila Kovács


Background and aim

Right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) assessed by 3D echocardiography is a powerful measure to detect RV dysfunction. However, its prognostic value in routine clinical practice has been scarcely explored. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating whether RVEF is associated with 2-year all-cause mortality in patients who underwent diverse cardiovascular procedures and to test whether RVEF can overcome conventional echocardiographic parameters in terms of outcome prediction.

Patients and methods

One hundred and seventy-four patients were retrospectively identified who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography comprising 3D acquisitions. The patient population consisted of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (44%), heart transplanted patients (16%), and severe valvular heart disease patients (39%). Beyond conventional echocardiographic measurements, RVEF was quantified by 3D echocardiography. The primary endpoint of our study was all-cause mortality at two years.


Twenty-four patients (14%) met the primary endpoint. Patients with adverse outcomes had significantly lower RVEF (alive vs. dead; 48 ± 9 vs. 42 ± 9%, P < 0.01). However, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21 ± 7 vs. 18 ± 4 mm), and RV systolic pressure (36 ± 15 vs. 39 ± 15 mmHg) were similar. By Cox analysis, RVEF was found to be associated with adverse outcomes (HR [95% CI]: 0.945 [0.908–0.984], P < 0.01). By receiver-operator characteristic analysis, RVEF exhibited the highest AUC value compared with the other RV functional measures (0.679; 95% CI: 0.566–0.791).


Conventional echocardiographic measurements may be inadequate to support a granular risk stratification in patients who underwent different cardiac procedures. RVEF may be a robust clinical parameter, which is significantly associated with adverse outcomes.

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