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Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Sándor Rózsa, András Holics, Attila Oláh, and Zsuzsanna Kulcsár

Vizsgálatunkban a személyiségintegrációjának mérésére a Sheldon és Kasser (1995, 2001) által kidolgozott módszert alkalmaztuk, amely a személyes törekvések kongruenciáját és koherenciáját határozza meg. A személyiség kongruens, ha törekvéseivel „intrinzik módon fontos értékeket szolgál”, és koherens, ha törekvései „egymást támogató jellegűek”. A törekvéseket intrinzik és extrinzik értékekre osztva a módszer külön elemzi a kétfajta értékben megmutatkozó koherenciát, míg a koherencia összértéke motivációs mutatóként szolgál. Eredeti feltevésünk szerint szomatizáló személyekre a személyiségintegráció vizsgált mutatóinak alacsonyabb értékei jellemzők. A jelen vizsgálatban 17 szomatizáló, de pszichiátriai kezelés alatt nem álló személy (akiknél legalább 1 testi panasz minimum 6 hónapja áll fenn) és 16 kontrollszemély személyiségintegrációs mutatóit vetettük össze. Vizsgáltuk továbbá a törekvések mutatói és a Pszichológiai Immunrendszer Kérdőív (PIK), valamint a NEO-PIR skálái közötti együtt­járásokat is. A szomatizációs csoportot a törekvések fokozott külső determinációja jellemezte, a belső determináció mentén a két csoport között nem volt különbség. A koherenciamutatók arra utalnak, hogy a kísérleti csoportra fokozott extrinzik értékkövetés jellemző, a náluk kapott magasabb össz­koherencia értékek a személyek magasabb motiváltságára utalnak, amit a vizsgálatra való önkéntes jelentkezés ténye is igazol. Korrelációs elemzéseink szerint a magasabb szintű törekvések a nem szo­ma­ti­záló csoportnál számos PIK skálával pozitív, az alacsonyabb szintű törekvések negatív kapcsolatban voltak. A NEO-PIR Neuroticizmus skála a külsőleg determinált törekvésekkel pozitív együttjárást mutatott. Ezek a kézenfekvő kapcsolatok a szomatizáló csoportot nem vagy jóval kisebb mértékben jel­lemezték. A szomatizáló csoport fokozottabb külső determinációja, illetve extrinzik értékkövetése, mely csökkent autonómiát jelez, hipotézisünket támogatja, és feltevésünk szerint a szomatizációs zavar pato­gene­zi­sében és fenntartásában szerepet játszhat.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Gábor Mátis, Zsuzsanna Neogrády, György Csikó, Péter Gálfi, Hedvig Fébel, Katalin Jemnitz, Zsuzsanna Veres, Anna Kulcsár, Ákos Kenéz, and Korinna Huber

The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo epigenetic influences of dietary butyrate supplementation on the acetylation state of core histones and the activity of drug-metabolising microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver of broiler chickens in the starter period. One-day-old Ross 308 broilers were fed a starter diet without or with sodium butyrate (1.5 g/kg feed) for 21 days. After slaughtering, nucleus and microsome fractions were isolated from the exsanguinated liver by multi-step differential centrifugation. Histone acetylation level was detected from hepatocyte nuclei by Western blotting, while microsomal CYP activity was examined by specific enzyme assays. Hyperacetylation of hepatic histone H2A at lysine 5 was observed after butyrate supplementation, providing modifications in the epigenetic regulation of cell function. No significant changes could be found in the acetylation state of the other core histones at the acetylation sites examined. Furthermore, butyrate did not cause any changes in the drugmetabolising activity of hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 enzymes, which are mainly involved in the biotransformation of most xenobiotics in chicken. These data indicate that supplementation of the diet with butyrate probably does not have any pharmacokinetic interactions with simultaneously applied xenobiotics.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Janka Petrilla, Gábor Mátis, Anna Kulcsár, Petra Talapka, Enikő Bíró, Máté Mackei, Hedvig Fébel, and Zsuzsanna Neogrády

This study investigates the metabolic effects of maize- or wheat-based diets with normal (NP) and lowered (LP) dietary crude protein level [the latter supplemented with limiting amino acids and sodium (n-)butyrate at 1.5 g/kg diet] at different phases of broiler fattening. Blood samples of Ross 308 broilers were tested at the age of 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Total protein (TP) concentration increased in wheat-based and decreased in LP groups in week 3, while butyrate reduced albumin/TP ratio in week 1. Uric acid level was elevated by wheat-based diet in week 1 and by wheat-based diet and butyrate in week 3, but decreased in LP groups in weeks 3 and 6. Aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased by wheat-based diet in week 3, and creatine kinase activity was intensified by LP in weeks 3 and 6. Blood glucose level decreased in wheat-based groups in week 3; however, triglyceride concentration was augmented in the same groups in week 3. No change of glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin concentration was observed. In conclusion, an age-dependent responsiveness of broilers to dietary factors was found, dietary cereal type was a potent modulator of metabolism, and a low crude protein diet supplemented with limiting amino acids might have a beneficial impact on the growth of chickens.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Kulcsár, Gábor Mátis, Andor Molnár, Janka Petrilla, Ferenc Husvéth, Korinna Huber, Károly Dublecz, and Zsuzsanna Neogrády

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of butyrate as a feed supplement on the expression of insulin signalling proteins as potent regulators of metabolism and growth in Ross 308 broiler chickens fed maize- or wheat-based diets. Both diets were supplemented with non-protected butyrate (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg of diet, respectively) or with protected butyrate (0.2 g/kg of diet); the diet of the control groups was prepared without any additives (control). On day 42 of life, systemic blood samples were drawn for analyses of glucose and insulin concentrations, and tissue samples (liver, gastrocnemius muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue) were taken for Western blotting examinations. The expression of key insulin signalling proteins (IRβ, PKCζ and mTOR) was assessed by semiquantitative Western blotting from the tissues mentioned. The type of diet had a remarkable influence on the insulin homeostasis of chickens. The wheat-based diet significantly increased IRβ and mTOR expression in the liver as well as mTOR and PKCζ expression in the adipose tissue when compared to animals kept on a maize-based diet. IRβ expression in the liver was stimulated by the lower dose of non-protected butyrate as well, suggesting the potential of butyrate as a feed additive to affect insulin sensitivity. Based on the results obtained, the present study shows new aspects of nutritional factors by comparing the special effects of butyrate as a feed additive and those of the cereal type, presumably in association with dietary non-starch polysaccharide- (NSP-) driven enteric shortchain fatty acid release including butyrate, influencing insulin homeostasis in chickens. As the tissues of chickens have physiologically lower insulin sensitivity compared to mammals, diet-associated induction of the insulin signalling pathway can be of special importance in improving growth and metabolic health.

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Pszichológia
Authors: Sándor Rózsa, Natasa Kő, Kata Krekó, Zsolt Unoka, Bertalan Csorba, Edina Fecskó, and Zsuzsanna Kulcsár

Summary

Tanulmányunkban a Robbins és Kirmayer (1991) által kidolgozott Tünetinterpretáció Kérdőív pszichometriai jellemzőit mutatjuk be. Vizsgálatainkban összesen 660 fő (345 egyetemi hallgató, 98 egészségügyi alapellátásban megjelenő páciens, 217 „egészséges” _

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Vera Faigl, Mónika Keresztes, Margit Kulcsár, Sándor Nagy, Zsuzsanna Keresztes, Georgios Amiridis, László Solti, Gyula Huszenicza, and Sándor Cseh

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term melatonin treatment applied during the non-breeding season on semen characteristics, endocrine function of testicles and baseline level of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in Awassi rams kept in the temperate continental zone of Europe and used as semen donors in an artificial insemination (AI) programme. On 23 February (day 0), slow-release melatonin implants were inserted subcutaneously into rams (n = 8). Control animals (n = 8) received no treatment. In both groups, basic semen parameters (concentration, total motility, fast and slow forward motility, morphology), GnRH-induced testosterone response and basal IGF-I concentration were evaluated on days 0, 47 and 71. No differences were found in concentration of spermatozoa, total motility, and numbers of spermatozoa with fast and slow progressive motility and normal/abnormal morphology between the melatonin-treated and the control group. However, in melatonin-treated animals, basal and GnRH-induced testosterone levels were slightly elevated on day 47 and became significantly higher on day 71 (P < 0.05) as compared to controls. There was no difference in plasma IGF-I levels between the groups. In conclusion, slow-release melatonin applied during the non-breeding season improves testicular testosterone production but does not influence the semen characteristics and the IGF-I level of semen donor Awassi rams used in an AI programme and kept in the temperate continental zone of Europe.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Barbara Buday, Tünde Horváth, Enikő Kulcsár, Csaba Salamon, Botond Literáti Nagy, Kitty Barta, Márta Vitai, Rita Józsa, Zsuzsanna Vecsei, Katalin Bezzegh, József Kiss, Éva Péterfai, László Koltay, and László Korányi

Worldwide there is an increasing number of patients with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Paradoxically, the diabetes epidemic is driven by the same obesity which protects the bones in obese females. With these core facts in mind the aim of the study was to investigate the connection between early glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, bone density and metabolism. Patients and methods: 20 healthy patients and 51 glucose intolerant women in perimenopause matched for age (49 ± 9 years) were selected for the study. Their metabolic status was determined by OGTT and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For each of these patients, glucose, insulin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and lipid levels were measured. Body composition and bone mineral density over lumbar spine and the femur neck were measured by DEXA. Results: There was no difference in BMD observed between the two groups. Significant correlation was found between total body glucose utilisation and bone density in the healthy group (lumbar spine r = –0,4921, p < 0.05, femur neck: r = –0.4972, p < 0.05), while this correlation disappeared (lumbar spine: r = –0.022, ns; femur neck: r = –0.314, ns) with deteriorating glucose tolerance. Among adipokines measured, only adiponectin correlated with lumbar spine density in both groups ( r = –0.5081, p < 0.05; –0.2804, p < 0.05), but not with femur density where this connection disappeared in glucose intolerance (r = –0.6742, p < 0.01; –0.1723, ns). Resorption quotient formed by P1NP/β-crosslaps increased significantly in glucose intolerant subjects. This suggests that bone resorption decreases with worsening insulin resistance. Conclusion: Inverse correlation was found between bone density, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy women in perimenopause. Furthermore, this connection disappeared with the deterioration of glucose metabolism and the progression of insulin resistance. Decreasing insulin sensitivity of bones and the “escape” from metabolic control may result in hyperdensity, which is frequently observed in Type 2 diabetics.

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