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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Bernadett Khayer
,
Zsuzsanna Rónai
,
Enikő Wehmann
, and
Tibor Magyar

Four urease-negative Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates originating from pigs were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods. The phenotypic properties of the isolates were in harmony with the data of the literature, except for the lack of urease activity in conventional tube test, API 20 NE and Diatabs™ assays. Using genotypic methods, the urease-negative isolates did not differ from the urease-positive reference strain. They were positive in species-specific and ureC PCR, and all strains showed uniform bands in PCR-RFLP studies of flaA genes. The reason for the lack of urease activity, a characteristic considered speciesspecific for B. bronchiseptica, needs to be studied further. The finding underlines the significance of genotyping when the phenotypic identification of B. bronchiseptica seems questionable.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Zsolt Rónai
,
Zoltán Lippai
,
Zsuzsanna Elek
, and
Anikó Somogyi

Absztrakt:

Bár a Humán Genom Projekt másfél évtizede feltárta a 3 milliárd nukleotidból álló emberi genetikai információ bázissorrendjét, a betegségek – elsősorban a komplex rendellenességek – hátterének pontos megismerése még várat magára. A még azonosítatlan örökletes tényezők összességét hiányzó örökölhetőségnek nevezzük, ennek felderítése a molekuláris patomechanizmus megismerésének alapja. Ez nem csupán elméleti kérdés: ezen tudás a mindennapi gyakorlatban a diagnosztika, a megelőzés és a célzott, egyénre szabott kezelés fejlődésének lehetőségét kínálja. A még nem ismert genetikai faktorok azonosításához a mind újabb és hatékonyabb molekuláris biológiai technikák alkalmazása hozzájárul, a cél eléréséhez azonban számos klinikai és genetikai koncepció újragondolása vezethet el. Tudásunkat az eddigi genomszintű analízisek megalapozták, de további ismeretek feltárása szükséges az alábbi szempontok alapján: (1) SNP-k mellett az ismétlődési variációk (VNTR-ek és CNV-k) genotipizálása és asszociáció elemzése, (2) gén–gén és gén–környezet kölcsönhatás vizsgálata, (3) epigenetikai elemzések, (4) polimorfizmusok biológiai funkciójának meghatározása, (5) biológiailag releváns diagnosztikai kategóriák, endofenotípusok alkalmazása. Noha a genomnak csupán az 1,2%-a felelős a fehérjék kódolásáért, ugyanakkor csaknem 90%-a RNS-re átíródik, így a génexpresszió-szintű vizsgálatok ígéretes kiindulópontot jelenthetnek, mivel rávilágíthatnak azon molekuláris szintű folyamatokra, amelyek szerepet játszanak a betegségek kialakításában. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(31): 1254–1261.

Open access

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
A. Zsarnovszky
,
É Földvári
,
Zsuzsanna Rónai
,
T. Bartha
, and
L. Frenyó

Environmental and plant oestrogens have been identified as compounds that when ingested, disrupt the physiological pathways of endogenous oestrogen actions and thus, act as agonists or antagonists of oestrogen. Although the risks of exposure to exogenous oestrogens (ExEs) are subject to scientific debate, the question of how ExE exposure affects the central nervous system remains to be answered. We attempt to summarise the mechanisms of oestrogenic effects in the central nervous tissue with the purpose to highlight the avenues potentially used by ExEs. The genomic and rapid, non-genomic cellular pathways activated by oestrogen are listed and discussed together with the best known interneuronal mechanisms of oestrogenic effects. Because the effects of oestrogen on the brain seem to be age dependent, we also found it necessary to put the age-dependent oestrogenic effects in parallel to their intra-and intercellular mechanisms of action. Finally, considering the practical risks of human ExE exposure, we briefly discuss the human significance of this matter. We believe this short review of the topic became necessary because recent data suggest new fields and pathways for endogenous oestrogen actions and have generated the concern that the hidden exposure of humans and domestic animal species to ExEs may also exert its beneficial and/or adverse effects through these avenues.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Zsuzsa Kreizinger
,
Kinga Mária Sulyok
,
László Makrai
,
Zsuzsanna Rónai
,
László Fodor
,
Szilárd Jánosi
, and
Miklós Gyuranecz

The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Anna Valkó
,
András Marosi
,
Attila Cságola
,
Rózsa Farkas
,
Zsuzsanna Rónai
, and
Ádám Dán

Enteric viral diseases of swine are one of the most frequent disorders causing huge economic losses in pork production. After the reappearance of an emerging enteropathogen, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in Hungary in 2016, an extensive survey was initiated in an attempt to identify diarrhoea-related porcine viruses, including adeno-, astro-, boca-, calici-, circo-, corona-, kobu-, rota- and Torque teno viruses. A total of 384 faecal samples collected during a twoyear period from diarrhoeic and asymptomatic pigs of various ages in 17 farms were screened by conventional and real-time PCR methods. Half of the samples contained at least one examined virus with the dominance of kobuvirus (55.1%) followed by bocaviruses (33.2%) and rotavirus groups A and C together (20.9%), while coronaviruses including PEDV were not found in this set of samples. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the frequency of single infections compared to mixed ones with the exception of weaned pigs, in which group additionally most viruses were detected. The results of this study suggest that the complexity of this disease may vary with age, which makes the prevention of diarrhoea a challenge, especially in weaned pigs.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Anna Valkó
,
Ervin Albert
,
Attila Cságola
,
Tünde Varga
,
Krisztián Kiss
,
Rózsa Farkas
,
Zsuzsanna Rónai
,
Imre Biksi
, and
Ádám Dán

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an emerging enteropathogen, causing great economic losses in the pig industry. After many years of quiescence, PEDV was detected in Hungary in 2016 with a recombination in its S gene. In order to determine the extent of this change, an attempt was made to isolate the recombinant PEDV. This study was extended with a variety of samples collected from three separate farms with newly identified PEDV in 2018. The recombinant PEDV from 2016 was isolated successfully along with three viruses from 2018, and one isolate from the new cases was used for whole genome determination. Whole genome sequence alignment revealed the highest identity with recombinant Hungarian and Slovenian PEDV within the low-pathogenic European viruses. This suggests that these recombinant PEDV are circulating in this area and may spread to other parts of the continent.

Open access