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Cell proliferation and apoptosis in canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were examined in twenty cases. The Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and Tunel methods were used to detect mitotic activity and apoptosis, respectively. The number of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells was 11.65 (±1.1706) in canine cutaneous histiocytomas and 17 (±2.1751) in transmissible venereal tumours. The mean values of apoptotic cells for canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were 13.25 (±1.8758) and 8.52 (±1.1007), respectively. It was considered that mitotic activity and apoptotic indices were useful in differentiation of canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours. The correlation values for canine cutaneous histiocytomas and transmissible venereal tumours were 0.359 (±0.330) and -0.232 (±0.344), respectively. No significant (P≯0.05) correlation was found between mitosis and apoptosis in these two tumour types.

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This study investigated lipid peroxidation (LPO) changes during intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion with and without deferoxamine or L-arginine treatment. White Wistar rats were allotted into four groups as follows: sham-operated (Group SOP), ischaemia-reperfusion only (Group I/R), I/R with deferoxamine (Group D) or L-arginine (Group A) treatment. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), overall concentration of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-alkenals (LPO586), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of the jejunal homogenates were determined. The same analytes except LPO586 were assayed in RBC haemolysates. Measurements of ferric reducing ability (FRAP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations of plasma samples were also completed. The only significant change observed in the SOP group was an increased SOD activity after the ischaemic period. In the I/R group significant increase of intestinal LPO586 concentration was observed during hypoxia that was followed by similar changes in intestinal and RBC TBARS and plasma FRAP values upon reperfusion. In Group D the intestinal TBARS and LPO586 concentrations were significantly lower while FRAP and NO concentrations were significantly higher compared to the I/R group. At the same time RBC TBARS concentration and GPX activity significantly decreased within Group D. In Group A the intestinal LPO586 concentration was significantly lower than in the I/R group whilst RBC TBARS concentration showed a similar pattern. Plasma FRAP and NO concentration showed similar changes to those seen in Group D. It is concluded that I/R increased the LPO in the intestinal tissue and altered some parameters of plasma and RBCs, too. Deferoxamine treatment prevented these effects, while the usefulness of L-arginine remained doubtful.

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The present study was designed to investigate whether meat-type rabbits are able to perform treadmill running as a daily routine exercise, and if so, whether the exercise induces specific proportional changes in the fatty acid composition of their muscles. After a four-week training period 8-week-old rabbits were slaughtered and the total activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase was measured, showing a significant difference between the exercised and control groups (429 ± 126 IU/l vs. 639 ± 203 IU/l). Furthermore the fatty acid composition of m. longissimus dorsi (MLD) and m. vastus lateralis (MVL) was determined by means of gas chromatography. Exercise increased the proportions of oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) in both MLD and MVL as compared to the control group. However, the level of stearic (C18:0) and arachidonic (C20:4 n-6) acids significantly decreased in the MVL after the exercise. Changes in the fatty acid profile resulting from the physically loaded condition were of the same tendency in both muscles, adding that the MVL might have been exposed to the exercise more intensively; alterations there occurred in a more pronounced manner. Based on the inference that the composition of membrane structure was also affected, these alterations may have important consequences on meat quality.

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The reproductive toxicity of lead acetate and of a fungicide formulation (Dithane M-45) containing 80% mancozeb was studied on rats. Lead acetate was applied in the feed in the following dose groups: control, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/kg of diet. The three treatment groups received, in addition to the above doses of lead acetate, 4,500 mg/kg Dithane M-45 in the diet. The method was based on the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 415 (1981). Clinical symptoms and mortality were not found in the parent generation. The body weight of female animals decreased significantly before the pregnancy period. This tendency was also seen in males after the combination treatment. At the two high dose levels a remarkable body weight increase was seen in the female animals during the lactation period. As a result of treatment, decreased body weight of offspring was measured during the lactation period. No gross pathological changes were seen. Histological examination showed general tubulonephrosis in the experimental animals. It can be established that the administration of Dithane M-45 did not enhance the reproductive toxicity of lead acetate.

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The analysis was conducted on the national database of the station tests carried out between May 1996 and February 2001, using the Hungarian Large White (LW) and Hungarian Landrace (LR) breeds, and the A-line of the Ka-Hyb hybrid (MLW). Days of test, total amount of feed consumed and valuable cuts were taken into the analysis to test the random distribution of the animals' phenotypic measurements and predicted breeding values across the contemporary groups of origin. The phenotypic measurements of all traits were clearly positively associated with the herds of origin (b = 0.52-1.08). Animals with favourable phenotypic measurements originated from better herds. On the contrary, the predicted breeding values seemed to be independent of the herd effects (b= -0.16-0.08) and suggested a possible random distribution across the contemporary groups.

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Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis was performed on 13 healthy beagle dogs to determine whether percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in the dog was a feasible and safe procedure. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations were done at 0 and 10 minutes, in the 2nd and 16th hour, and on the 7th day. They included a detailed physical examination of the mucous membranes, cardiorespiratory system and abdominal organs. Laboratory examinations of the blood consisted of a complete blood count, determination of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein (TPP), parameters of haemostasis including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and enzyme activities reflecting hepatobiliary function, i.e. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Ultrasonographic findings of the gallbladder (size, shape, wall, content) and appearance of the biliary tract and the surrounding cranial intraabdominal organs were also evaluated. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis was performed easily during the study, and dogs tolerated well the procedure performed without anaesthesia. All laboratory parameters of the blood remained within normal limits throughout the study. However, some follow-up values, i.e. PCV, TPP, APTT and ALT, demonstrated statistically significant differences when compared to baseline measurements, which might reflect the effect of 24-hour fasting before the experiment, as well as day-to-day metabolic fluctuations due to feeding and water supply during the study. There were no visible signs of bleeding from the liver, bile leakage from the gallbladder or accumulation of free peritoneal fluid during repeated ultrasonographic examinations. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis seems to be an important diagnostic procedure in canine gallbladder diseases and can be used safely and easily to gain gallbladder bile for diagnosis of bacterial cholecystitis or for investigating hepatobiliary function in the dog.

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Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) form an integral part of the cell walls in plants and represent considerable available energy when degraded into absorbable mono-, di-, tri- and oligosaccharides. The ruminal microflora hydrolyses a good part of NSPs, however, recently there have been attempts to enhance the rate of utilisation by using external polysaccharidase enzymes. In the present study the effects of an enzyme preparation (Rumino-Zyme) high in xylanase activity were studied on ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, parameters of energy and protein metabolism, milk yield, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body condition score of high-yielding dairy cows. A lignolytic enzyme preparation produced by the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus was applied in the present experiment and fed to dairy cows at 34 g/day dosage in the period between calving and the 110th day of lactation. This preparation increased VFA concentration in the rumen from about 32 days after calving and onward. Increased VFA concentration was followed by an about 5 to 10% increase in milk production and an almost 0.1% increase in butterfat production. Increased VFA concentration produced more balanced energy metabolism in the experimental cows as indicated by the lower incidence rate of hyperketonaemia, and lower acetoacetic acid and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in the blood of the experimental cows. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was tendentiously higher in the control group and the proportion of cows that had AST activity higher than 100U/l was also higher in the control group. Both control and experimental cows showed balanced protein and acid-base metabolism throughout the experiment. Enhanced VFA concentration contributed to an improvement in energy balance in the experimental cows with a resultant improvement of feed intake and feed utilisation. Due to the more balanced energy metabolism postparturient body condition loss of the treated cows was reduced.

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Slaughterhouse sampling and examination of urogenital tracts of 499 sows and gilts culled for reproductive reasons from 21 Hungarian herds were performed over a 6-year period. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of different urogenital tract lesions, and to provide sensitivity and specificity estimates for macroscopic and bacteriological examinations in the diagnosis of urocystitis and endometritis. Furthermore, the association between endometritis and urocystitis was assessed. The prevalence of main lesions of the urogenital tract was similar to that reported in other studies. The 'sensitivity' of macroscopic and bacteriological methods was determined statistically by taking histopathology as the 'Gold Standard'. As a result, the 'sensitivity' of macroscopic methods for the diagnosis of endometritis and urocystitis was ≤ 18.1% and 47.9%, respectively, while the 'sensitivity' of bacteriology for the diagnosis of the same conditions was ≤ 31.8% and 63.0%, respectively. The presumed positive association between urocystitis and endometritis was confirmed; it was not confounded by parity. Animals affected by urocystitis had a 3.5 times higher odds to simultaneously have endometritis than animals without urocystitis.

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Anatomical and physiological properties of the digestive tract were examined and compared in young rabbits nursed either by one (SS) or by two does (DD) daily up to the age of 35 days. At the age of 23, 30, 37 and 44 days, 8 young per treatment were euthanised. Double suckling and the subsequent higher level of solid feed intake after weaning were found to exert a stronger influence on the weight of the entire gastrointestinal tract and that of its individual parts (the stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon) than on its length. The quantity of the gastric content was found to rise with advancing age in both groups (from 36 to 70g and from 37.5 to 79g). In both groups the pH of the stomach was higher during the suckling period (4.5-5.3) than subsequent to weaning (1.6-2.4). The quantity of the caecal content also increased with age (from 4 or 8g), but on the 37th day significantly higher quantities of caecal content were recorded in DD rabbits (50.5g compared with 35g). The pH of the caecal content decreased more slowly from an initial high value (6.0 and 6.5 in SS and DD rabbits, respectively), and by the 37th day had settled at a low value (5.7-5.8) in both groups. The dry matter content of the caecal content decreased from 270-273g to 188-207g in both groups. Total volatile fatty acid (tVFA) and acetic acid (C2) concentration, which amounted to 66-88% of tVFA, rose; in SS rabbits they were at higher levels by the 30th day (53.6 and 42.2mmol/L, respectively), and remained at an increased level until the 44th day (P<0.05). The ratio of C3:C4 was high on the 23rd day (2.5 and 2.4), but dropped at the age of 30 days (0.5 in SS and 1.7 in DD, P<0.05) and, further, by the 37th day (0.2 in SS). In SS rabbits coliform count proved significantly lower (105) on the 23rd day than in DD rabbits (106). By the 37th day this count had decreased in both groups and subsequently remained at a low level (<104). By the 23rd day Bacteroides were present in large quantities (108) in the caecum and showed no change with advancing age or feeding regime.

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Haematological and biochemical analyses of blood were performed in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) kept in small ponds. Caught and anaesthetised carp were clinically examined and blood samples were taken at regular intervals during the three years. In the first year of examinations, the haemoglobin and haematocrit values of carp fry significantly increased (P<0.01) from June to September. The intensive growth of carp in the summer period in the second year was accompanied by adequate erythropoiesis. During hibernation haematocrit and haemoglobin significantly decreased (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) increased (P<0.01) in both scaly and mirror carp. MCHC increased also with the age and increasing body weight of the fish. Mirror carp had lower haematocrit and haemoglobin values than scaly carp (P<0.01). Comparative haematological analyses between carp of normal and poor body condition showed that moderate anaemia appeared in those with poor body condition. The results indicate that there is marked seasonal and age-dependent variation in the values of haematocrit and haemoglobin. Pond water quality investigations indicated good environmental conditions. A 50% increase (P<0.05) of glucose concentration was found from June to September in the blood plasma of carp in the third year, accompanied by an even more increased (80%; P<0.01) concentration of total lipids. At the same time, considerable changes of cholesterol and total protein concentrations were not observed. The results suggest that the investigated haematological and biochemical variables could be successfully utilised in monitoring the metabolic balance and health status of fish in intensive culture.

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