Authors:T. Molnár, R. Glávits, L. Szeredi, and et al.
In the past few years a characteristic, often fatal disease associated with cutaneous lesions and nephropathy has been observed in several large pig herds and household pig stocks of Hungary. In addition to general symptoms and slight fever in several cases, the disease was characterised by cutaneous lesions occurring mostly on the ventral part of the thorax and abdomen, on the extremities and ear pinnae, and in the nasal and perianal region. In the acute phase, circumscribed hyperaemic, confluent, crust-covered areas were seen. Histological examination revealed necrosis of the epithelial layer and lympho-histiocytic vasculitis in the corium, here and there accompanied by thrombosis and fibrinoid degeneration. The kidneys were pale brown and harder to tear, with cortical petechiae in most cases. By histopathological examination, intra- and extracapillary glomerulonephritis accompanied by fibrinoid exudation was seen. Some of the renal tubules were dilated, others were atrophied, and in advanced cases proliferation of the intertubular connective tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration also occurred. Necrotic vasculitis was also observed in some cases. By immunohistochemical examination IgA, IgG and IgM, and in a single case C3 belonging to the complement system were observed in the pathologically changed skin areas and kidneys. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) was detected. Bacteriological and serological examinations did not reveal infections of aetiological importance.
Authors:Annett Bellmann, F. Schneider, W. Kanitz, and et al.
In the following investigations, the LH secretion of cells from pituitaries in heifers on days 16-18 of their oestrous cycle (n = 14) was analysed. Cells were dissociated with trypsin and collagenase and maintained in a static culture system. For the estimation of LH release, the cells were incubated with various concentrations of mammalian GnRH (Lutrelef) for 6h. To determine the action of Antarelix (GnRH antagonist), the cells were preincubated for 1 h with concentrations of 10-5 or 10-4 M Antarelix followed by 10-6 M GnRH coincubation for a further 6h. At the end of each incubation, the medium was collected for LH analysis. Parallel, intracellular LH was qualitatively detected by immunocytochemistry. Changes in the intensity of LH staining within the cells in dependence of different GnRH concentrations were not observed, but a significant increase LH secretion in pituitary cells was measured at 10-6 M GnRH. Antarelix had no effect on basal LH secretion at concentrations of 10-4 and 10-5 M. After coincubation of pituitary cells with Antarelix and GnRH, Antarelix blocked the GnRH-stimulated LH secretion with a maximal effect of 10-4 M, but the staining of immunoreactive intracellular LH was detected at approximately the same level compared to the pituitary cells treated with exogenous GnRH alone. These data demonstrate that Antarelix is effective in influencing the GnRH-stimulated LH secretion of pituitary cells in vitro. After administration of Antarelix in vivo, the GnRH-stimulated LH secretion of cultured pituitary cells was not inhibited.
Authors:Marina Tišljar, D. Janić, Ž. Grabarević, and et al.
One of the most serious problems in the chinchilla industry is 'fur-chewing', when the chinchilla bites off areas of its own or some other animal's fur. The condition generally develops in both genders at the age of 6-8 months. In chinchilla farms in Croatia an incidence of 15-20% has been observed. A pathomorphological, microbiological and parasitological investigation was conducted on eleven 6- to 11-month-old chinchillas of both sexes with clinical symptoms of 'fur-chewing' and three chinchillas without such signs. Histopathology of the adrenal glands and of the chewed skin revealed changes typical of Cushing's syndrome in 'fur-chewed' chinchillas, such as hyperkeratinisation of the epidermis, epidermal atrophy, pronounced follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy, hyperkeratinisation of the follicles with comedo formations and the presence of calcium salts in subcutis.
Authors:B. Mayr, S. Zwetkoff, G. Schaffner, and et al.
Haemangiosarcomas of dogs were analysed by molecular genetic techniques. Regions of the tumour suppressor gene p53, including the well-known tumour hot spots (codons 175, 245, 248, 249, 273 and 282) were screened. A 24 bp deletion was detected in exon 5 of the gene.
Authors:Ljiljana Pinter, R. M. Anthony, Nada Glumac, and et al.
Twenty-nine isolates of Malasseziapachydermatis were recovered from a single farm of 100 pigs in Croatia. In contrast, 290 farm pigs from other locations (northern parts of Croatia and Slovenia) yielded only two non-lipid dependent isolates of M. pachydermatis using the same swabbing procedure. Ten of the 29 isolates from a single farm had their identity confirmed by karyotyping, and were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. All but one of these isolates sub-typed were indistinguishable, one isolate produced a slightly different RFLP profile. Control isolates recovered from dog skin gave RFLP profiles that were easily distinguished from those produced by the pig isolates. These results suggest that a single strain of M. pachydermatis had colonised this pig herd.
Authors:Éva J. Kaszanyitzky, A. Tarpai, Sz. Jánosi, and et al.
Because of the rapid development and spread of antimicrobial resistance it is important that a system be established to monitor antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic zoonotic and commensal bacteria of animal origin. Susceptibility testing of bacteria from carcasses and different samples of animal origin has been carried out in veterinary institutes for a long time but by an inconsistent methodology. The disc diffusion method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) was introduced in all institutes in 1997. In order to obtain a coherent view of the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria a computer system was consulted, consisting of a central computer to store all data and some local computers attached to it through the network. At these local measuring stations computers are connected to a video camera, which displays the picture of Petri dishes on the monitor, and inhibition zone diameters of bacteria can be drawn with the mouse by the inspector. The software measures the diameters, evaluates whether or not the bacteria are sensitive, and stores the data. The evaluation is based upon the data of the NCCLS. The central computer can be connected to as many local computers with measuring stations as we wish, so it is suitable for an integrated system for monitoring trends in antimicrobial resistance of bacteria from animals, food and humans, facilitating comparison of the occurrence of resistance for each circumstance in the chain. It depends on the examiners which antibiotics they want to examine. Thirty-two different antibiotic panels were compiled, taking into consideration the active ingredients of medicinal products permitted for veterinary use in Hungary, natural resistance and cross-resistance, the mechanism of resistance and the animal species, i.e. which drugs were recommended for treatment in the given animal species, and the recommendations of the OIE Expert Group on Antimicrobial Resistance. The members of the panels can be changed any time, even during the measuring process. In addition to the inhibition zone diameters of bacteria the database also includes information about bacterial and animal species, the age of animals and the sample or organ where the bacteria are from. Since January 2001 the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterococcus strains isolated from the colons of slaughter cows, pigs and broiler chickens has also been examined. Each of the 19 counties of Hungary submits to the laboratory three tied colon samples from a herd of the above-mentioned animals every month.
Authors:Hedvig Fébel, F. Husvéth, T. Veresegyházy, and et al.
This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine.
Authors:Martina Baumgartner, Martina Flöck, Petra Winter, and et al.
Difficulties in measuring the urea content in sheep's milk often occur with spectral photometry due to the high protein and fat concentrations of the milk. In this study an enzymatic flow procedure (QuickChem 8000 Ion Analyser, Lachat Instruments, Milwaukee, USA) to determine the urea content in ovine and bovine milk was evaluated. Urea content is determined by the Berthelot reaction after splitting it enzymatically with urease. The free ammonia diffuses through a teflon membrane into a stream of reagent solutions. Detection takes place by means of a reaction between the ammonium ions with hypochlorite and salicylate producing a green colour, which is measured spectrometrically in a flow meter at 660 nm. By using a diffusion cell chemical deproteinisation of milk is not necessary and capacity is high. The assessed procedure exhibited high accuracy and precision and reached a sample capacity of 55 samples an hour. Storage of the milk samples for several days as well as chemical preservation with bronopol had no effect on the measurement procedure. Due to the complexity of the apparatus and the costs associated therewith, the device proves less suitable for routine diagnostics but rather serves as a reference method for the measurement of urea concentration in milk.
Authors:P. Sarlós, A. Molnár, M. Kókai, and et al.
The aim of the present study was to develop a treatment supporting the membrane of ram spermatozoa. Semen of different ejaculates collected from breeding rams was mixed andsamples of 109 sperm cells per ml and Tris-egg yolk extender were completed with the following antioxidants: a-tocopherol acetate (E), glutathione peroxidase (GP), Aromex® (AR), resveratrol (R), resveratrol + vitamin E (RE), resveratrol + Aromex® (RAR), resveratrol + GP (RGP). Peroxidation was evaluated by the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) during incubation for 30, 60 and 120 min at 37°C as well as during a 24-h incubation at 5°C. The success of preservation was checked in a 9-day-long period by observing the acrosomal defects and the motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of MDA was 4.06 nmol/109 spermatozoa in samples treated with 15 µg R while the control sample contained 69.79 nmol MDA per 109 spermatozoa after 24-h incubation. Following 30-, 60- and 120-min storage the concentration of MDA in control and R-treated samples was 25.89, 36.91, 49.57 and 3.69, 3.74, 3.74 nmol/109 spermatozoa, respectively. Moreover, a significantly higher proportion of motile sperm cells was observed in the treated than in the control samples. The frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in the treated groups than in the control. These results indicate that RAR treatment can improve the effects of ram semen preservation.
Authors:D. Oraić, Snježana Zrnčić, B. Šoštarić, and et al.
During the spring of 1996 and autumn of 1997 unusual mortality outbreaks among rainbow trout fry and yearlings occurred at two different trout farms, resulting in mortality of 20 and 10 per cent, respectively. Generally, the affected fish, swimming at the water surface, were reluctant to eat and were dark pigmented with visible haemorrhages around and within the oral cavity. Bacterial isolates from moribund fish from both cases were identified as Yersinia ruckeri by standard biochemical tests and API 20E. The isolated strains were found to be sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, carbenicillin and gentamicin. Microplate agglutination assay confirmed that both isolates belonged to serotype O1. The pathogenicity of the isolated bacteria was confirmed by challenge experiment. Titres of specific antibodies were determined in the sera of survivors. The titre was highest on the 21st day postchallenge and was detectable until the 81st day.