The paper is a brief account about archaeological investigations and excavations from the mid 1960s on in the territory of the Provostry Church which was founded by King St. Stephan in the early 11th century. The new excavations contributed a lot to the knowledge of the Romanesque form of the West part of the Church which could be only partially investigated. Its form and even its construction in St Stephen's times is uncertain. Only the fact is proved that there was an early building on the West of the Church, which was already altered as early as the 12th century. South of the Church, elements of Gothic butressing system were revealed: fundations, corresponding to the 14th century nave vaults as well as piles belonging to the foundations of Gothic nave piers. The excavation of an eastern chapel opening from the South aisle is not yet finished. South of the Church the investigation of the North wing of a cloister belonging to the monastery and existing in the 12th-14th centuries, together with burials, was begun.
Authors:Barbara Szabó, Tivadar M. Tóth and Félix Schubert
Volcanic successions of the Kecel Basalt Formation (KBF) occur in the southern part of the Pannonian Basin. As a result of periodic submarine eruptions, the basaltic and pyroclastic rock horizons were intercalated with layers of the Late Miocene Endrod Marl Formation, which is regarded as one of the most important hydrocarbon source rocks in the area. The KBF was discovered through almost 30 wells between 2,200 and 2,900 meters of depth. Due to the high fracture porosity, some parts of the formation show good reservoir characteristics and act as important migration pathways of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids. Since the reservoir is presumably fracture-controlled, this study concentrates on the evolution of fractures crosscutting the rock body. Based on textural and mineralogical features, four distinct vein types can be distinguished, of which the first three types are discussed in this paper. Beside calcite, quartz, feldspar, and chlorite, the veins are cemented by various zeolite minerals. The vertical dimension of the dominant zeolite zone indicates the burial-diagenetic type of zeolite zonation and suggests subsidence of the subaqueous basalt after formation.
Authors:Georgina Lukoczki, Tamás Budai and Tibor Németh
Sideritic—kaolinitic and green clay layers were previously reported from the Mecsek Mountains (SW Hungary) as indicators of Tethyan volcanism in the otherwise germanotype Middle Triassic succession. The aim of the present study is to provide a review and a critical re-evaluation of the previously published data on both the sideritic—kaolinitic layers (the so-called “Mánfa Siderite”) and the green clay layers. New results of mineralogical investigation of the green clay layers are also presented. The Middle Triassic volcanic origin of the “Mánfa Siderite” cannot be confirmed. In addition to a possible volcanic contribution, the sideritic—kaolinitic layers were probably formed in a freshwater swamp under humid, tropical climatic conditions, whereby weathering in an organic-rich, acidic environment led to the formation of “underclays” and siderite in the coal-bearing formations of Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age. These layers were probably tectonically placed over Middle Triassic carbonates. The illitic green clay layers intercalated in the Middle Triassic dolostone may represent terrigenous deposits, and the illite mineralogy probably is the result of burial diagenesis of detrital clays.
We have more than a thousand manuscripts of the great hagiographical collection, the Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine from the 13th century, but there is only one codex which not only illustrated the text but translated it into a language of images. It is related to the Hungarian Anjous, that is why the codex is titled 'Hungarian Angevin Legendary'. The pages of the codex are spread over different collections of the world. Nowadays 58 legends are known on 142 pages, altogether 549 images. Some more important legends, as that of the apostles or the Anjous' favourite saint, King Ladislas, occupy 20-24 images. The paper tries to demonstrate two examples. St. Martin and St. Gerard, of how these cycles were organised. Two pictures of the supposed eight are emphasising the role of Martin as a bishop. Five images show the miracles of the saint and only one is consecrated to the charity of St. Martin, to the event which is his most popular story. Martin is the symbolic saint who gives half his goods to the poor. This scene is the most frequently represented in medieval art. In the Hungarian Angevin Legendary his miraculous activity is much more emphasized which is correlated with the written legend. The legend of St. Gerard is preserved completely in the Legendary. The first picture represents the saint discussing with King St. Stephen. On the second image the saint is represented as a hermit at Bakonybél with a book in his hand. The third one depicts the consecration of St. Gerard to the bishop of Csanád, on the next picture he is preaching to the people. The following pictures show his martyrdom and burial. It can be supposed that the painter(s) of the Hungarian Angevin Legendary could not use any iconographical tradition working on the cycle of St. Gerard.
This paper synthetises knowledge concerning the spread of the paredros type statuette in Roman Dacia. Thus, we examined their manner of distribution, the workshops, and most importantly their significance. The author notes that these statuettes were discovered solely in Dacia Superior and Porolissensis, especially in the former. He highlights the fact that these statuettes were found in the area of the most developed urban planning, along the Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa–Apulum–Potaissa–Porolissum line, in highly Romanised towns with important military units stationed nearby. Similarly, it shows the important role the Apulum urban centre played in producing and distributing these votive statuettes. The author concludes that these statuettes are additional evidence of the lower classes’ affiliation to imperial power. Due to the spread of the Jupiter cult in Apulum, it is no wonder that people sought to obtain a cheaper variant, accessible to the poor. Due to this aspect, as well as the sober, rigid stance of the characters, we attribute them to the deities Jupiter and Juno. Considering that such statuettes were not found in burials, it is unlikely that they were funerary offerings that were more likely to depict the divine couple Pluto and Proserpine. The statuettes cannot represent local Dacian deities since the conquered population is rarely mentioned in provincial inscriptions with anthroponyms (just over two percent), and sculptural or epigraphic monuments do not represent the deities of the ancient local pantheon. Furthermore, in the urban environment where these votive terracottas were produced, the presence of the Thracian-Dacian population is almost never mentioned epigraphically (more than 1% of epigraphs depict anthroponyms) or archaeologically.
Authors:Emese Nagy, Małgorzata Kaczanowska, Janusz Kozłowski, Magdalena Moskal-del Hoyo and Maria Lityńska-Zając
A salvage excavation preceding a major investment project was conducted in 2006–2007, during which associated settlement features of a Middle Neolithic, Eastern Linear Pottery Culture (Alföld Linearbandkeramik — ALBK) were uncovered in an area called Piócási-dűlő on the eastern outskirts of Polgár. The features of the ALBK settlement date from two periods. The cluster of multi-functional pits yielding a rich assortment of finds, the handful of post-holes and an unusual ritual well found in the southern part of the investigated area formed one unit from the earliest phase of the Middle Neolithic (ALBK I). The settlement’s other occupation can be assigned to the late phase of the Middle Neolithic (ALBK IV). Five houseplans representing the remains of timber-framed buildings outlined a distinct area with three multi-functional pits. Associated with the above features were 8 burials.The preliminary archaeobotanical results from Polgár-Piócási-dűlő are based on the plant material found within the sediments of 11 archaeological structures, which mainly represent pits and a welI. It can be stated that the natural environment offered habitats in which oak trees dominated in the local vegetation, forming floodplain forests and wooded steppes. They also provided food in the form of fruits and formed an optimal habitat for domestic animals. Arable fields were probably also established in the vicinity of the settlements, suggested by findings of macroscopic plant remains that represented cultivated species.In both settlement phases lithic production activities are manifested both by the local on-site lithic production and — most importantly — by the presence of imported, mainly mesolocal, raw materials that point to contacts with deposit areas, or off-site preliminary working of obsidian and limnoquartzites. The kit of harvesting tools and a large number of grinding stones — especially in the younger phase — for the preparation of plant food suggest a major role of plant cultivation.
Authors:T. Fell, A. Phipps, G. Kendall and G. Stradling
In most cases the measurement of radioactivity in an environmental or biological sample will be followed by some estimation of dose and possibly risk, either to a population or an individual. This will normally involve the use of a dose coefficient (dose per unit intake value) taken from a compendium. In recent years the calculation of dose coefficients has seen many developments in both biokinetic modelling and computational capabilities. ICRP has recommended new models for the respiratory tract and for the systemic behavior of many of the more important elements. As well as this, a general age-dependent calculation method has been developed which involves an effectively continuous variation of both biokinetic and dosimetric parameters, facilitating more realistic estimation of doses to young people. These new developments were used in work for recent ICRP, IAEA and CEC compendia of dose coefficients for both members of the public (including children) and workers. This paper presents a general overview of the method of calculation of internal doses with particular reference to the actinides. Some of the implications for dose coefficients of the new models are discussed. For example it is shown that compared with data in ICRP Publications 30 and 54: the new respiratory tract model generally predicts lower deposition in systemic tissues per unit intake; the new biokinetic models for actinides allow for burial of material deposited on bone surfaces; age-dependent models generally feature faster turnover of material in young people. All of these factors can lead to substantially different estimates of dose and examples of the new dose coefficients are given to illustrate these differences. During the development of the new models for actinides, human bioassay data were used to validate the model. Thus, one would expect the new models to give reasonable predictions of bioassay quantities. Some examples of the bioassay applications, e.g., excretion data for the plutonium model, are discussed briefly.
Provostry in Székesfehérvár was destroyed in the time of the osmanic occupation of Hungary. Its relics have been uncovered by archaeological excavations since the 19th century, and this study deals with a short description of the history of the building based on the research results up to day. The problems of eventual traces of the support system of the church built in the first decades of the 11th century are here discussed as well as those concerning its western part. The periodization of the western building of the 11th century church (demolished in the 13th century) and the cloister in the south could be treated here for the first time. In connection with the great rebuilding of the church in the 12th century mainly the problem of the dating of great wall blocks, interpreted as fundaments for buttresses, are discussed. Contrary to the opinion of those who want to place these into the context of the great 11th century rebuilding, according to her their construction in the 11th century appears as the most probable. In another old question of the building history, int that of the enlarging the nave pillars in order of narrowing the middle space before its vaulting, she proposes a date under King Charles Robert. She also treats the identifictaion of the burial chapel of King Louis the Great and two big foundation and two places of foundations ont he south part, all of the 15th century. It is looking for further researches, how these walls, which apparently belonged to the the 15th century buttressing system of the church, were related to the building activities of King Mathias Corvinus.