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Invertebrate microglia constitute a class of cells resident in the ganglionic nervous system which are activated after tissue injury or by the presence of pathogens. The microglia activation response includes graduated morpho-functional and biochemical changes and cell proliferation. In this study we verified in the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus that an activation caused by a traumatic event may induce microglia division. Cell proliferation was assessed immunocytochemically using BrdU incorporation technique and documented on both ganglionic sections and microglia cultured cells at different experimental conditions and times after activation. In addition, we studied the possibility of increasing microglia proliferation by adding to the cultured medium the Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) that has been shown to stimulate specifically this process in vertebrates.

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The alphaherpesvirus canine herpesvirus (CHV) was tested in order to determine whether or not it has apoptotic potential. We have demonstrated that lytic replication of CHV resulted in induction of apoptosis. This phenomenon was confirmed using different techniques including in situ TUNEL assay and DNA laddering. The apoptotic activity of CHV might influence the pathobiology of this virus.

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Authors: Michał Czopowicz, Jarosław Kaba, Horst Schirrmeier, Emilia Bagnicka, Olga Szaluś-Jordanow, Mariusz Nowicki, Lucjan Witkowski and Tadeusz Frymus

A serological survey was conducted in 2007 in the breeding goat population in Poland to gain insights into the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. All breeding herds were included in the study and representative serum samples were taken in each herd to evaluate herd-level seroprevalence at 10% expected individual-level prevalence and 95% level of confidence. Altogether 1060 serum samples from 49 herds were tested with blocking ELISA and then the positive and inconclusive results were confirmed in a serum neutralisation test, which also allowed us to determine the pestivirus species responsible for seroconversion. Herd-level seroprevalence proved to be 10.2% and bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) was responsible for the seroconversion in seven out of eight cases. In the remaining serum sample the causative virus could not be identified due to a pronounced cross-neutralising activity possibly derived from multiple infections. This is the first report on the diagnosis of BVDV-1 infection in Polish goats.

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To investigate the association of pathogenic Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesins with the development of diarrhoea in piglets of different age groups and to test their relative competitiveness, piglets were orally inoculated with a mixture of E. coli strains harbouring F4, F5, F6, F18 and F41 fimbrial genes. A total of 537 E. coli strains with haemolytic activity were isolated from 36 diarrhoeic piglets. The F4 fimbrial gene was observed in 98.5%, 97.6% and 80.6% strains carrying fimbrial genes isolated from diarrhoeic piglets that were infected at 1, 3 and 5 weeks of age, respectively. These data demonstrate that F4 fimbriae are highly associated with diarrhoea in piglets of all age groups. Interestingly, the F18 fimbrial gene was observed in 2.4% and 25.4% strains carrying fimbrial genes isolated from the 3- and 5-week-old groups, respectively, which confirms that F18 fimbriae are associated with diarrhoea in piglets from late stages of suckling to post-weaning, and are more related to diarrhoea in weaned than in unweaned piglets.

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The Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a nocturnal lemur species that lives only in Madagascar. It is one of the most abundant lemur species and its native populations are not endangered, but animals belonging to this species are rarely exhibited in zoos. While tumours are quite frequently described in other primates, there are very few publications about neoplasia in lemurs. In this case report we describe a mandibular osteoblastic osteosarcoma in a Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first scientific article describing osteosarcoma in a prosimian and also reporting a tumour in the mandible in this taxon.

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The authors describe a solitary adenoma in a 5.5-year-old female Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The tumour was partially blocking the lumen of the proventriculus and filled it almost completely. Decreased passage of food towards the gizzard and the intestines developed in the bird as result of the obstruction, which periodically hindered the passage, leading to slow emaciation. An epithelial tumour composed of irregular glandular acini was diagnosed by histological examination. Immunohistochemical reaction with pancytokeratin showed a positive cytoplasmic reaction both in the neoplastic and the normal glandular structures.

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Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek’s disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours.

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Authors: Anna Valkó, Ervin Albert, Attila Cságola, Tünde Varga, Krisztián Kiss, Rózsa Farkas, Zsuzsanna Rónai, Imre Biksi and Ádám Dán

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an emerging enteropathogen, causing great economic losses in the pig industry. After many years of quiescence, PEDV was detected in Hungary in 2016 with a recombination in its S gene. In order to determine the extent of this change, an attempt was made to isolate the recombinant PEDV. This study was extended with a variety of samples collected from three separate farms with newly identified PEDV in 2018. The recombinant PEDV from 2016 was isolated successfully along with three viruses from 2018, and one isolate from the new cases was used for whole genome determination. Whole genome sequence alignment revealed the highest identity with recombinant Hungarian and Slovenian PEDV within the low-pathogenic European viruses. This suggests that these recombinant PEDV are circulating in this area and may spread to other parts of the continent.

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Authors: Renan B. Paiano, Fábio C. Lahr, Lucas S. B. Silva, Diego S. Marques, Catia A. Ferreira, Daniela B. Birgel, Rafael S. Bisinotto and Eduardo H. Birgel Junior

The main aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia in Holstein dairy cows during the puerperium, and the haematological and biochemical profile of dairy cows with and without anaemia. The study was conducted in seven dairy herds in São Paulo State, Brazil. The evaluated sample comprised a total of 336 Holstein cows. Blood samples were collected at postpartum day 25 ± 3. Haematological analysis included white blood cell, red blood cell and platelet count, haematocrit value, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. The biochemical profile encompassed cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, calcium and total bilirubin concentrations. The prevalence of anaemia was 16.3% in all herds, and this was not affected by clinical diseases, milk production, parity and body score condition. Moreover, anaemic cows had lower red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum cholesterol and calcium concentrations and higher white blood cell and platelet counts, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, red cell distribution width, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, fibrinogen and globulin concentrations when compared with non-anaemic cows. The results indicate changes in energy balance and an inflammatory process in anaemic cows.

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Authors: Dolores Cid, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal, Chris Pinto, Lucas Domínguez and Ana Isabel Vela

Pasteurella multocida is responsible for economically important diseases in sheep and pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies are essential for initiating rational and effective empirical therapy of P. multocida infections. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents of 156 clinical isolates of P. multocida from sheep (n = 87) and pigs (n = 69) using the microdilution method. Both sheep and pig isolates exhibited low levels of resistance (≤ 15%) to ceftiofur, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, chlortetracycline, tulathromycin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, high resistance rates (> 15% up to 50%) to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, and tiamulin, and very high resistance rates (> 50%) to tylosin tartrate, clindamycin, and sulphadimethoxine. However, sheep isolates exhibited significantly lower percentages of resistance and lower MIC90 values (P < 0.05) than pig isolates for most of the antimicrobials tested. In addition, sheep isolates exhibited also significantly lower phenotypic antimicrobial resistance diversity (8 resistotypes vs. 30 resistotypes). LAC-LIN-SUL-MAC was the resistotype most frequently detected in sheep (39.1%) and LIN-SUL-MAC in pig isolates (26.1%). The differences in susceptibility patterns could be influenced by the lower use of antimicrobials in the small ruminant industry compared with the pig farming industry.

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