Authors:Carla Taramasco, Jean-Philippe Cointet and Camille Roth
This paper quantitatively explores the social and socio-semantic patterns of constitution of academic collaboration teams.
To this end, we broadly underline two critical features of social networks of knowledge-based collaboration: first, they essentially
consist of group-level interactions which call for team-centered approaches. Formally, this induces the use of hypergraphs and n-adic interactions, rather than traditional dyadic frameworks of interaction such as graphs, binding only pairs of agents. Second, we advocate the joint consideration of structural and semantic features, as collaborations
are allegedly constrained by both of them. Considering these provisions, we propose a framework which principally enables
us to empirically test a series of hypotheses related to academic team formation patterns. In particular, we exhibit and characterize
the influence of an implicit group structure driving recurrent team formation processes. On the whole, innovative production
does not appear to be correlated with more original teams, while a polarization appears between groups composed of experts
only or non-experts only, altogether corresponding to collectives with a high rate of repeated interactions.
A tanulmány az egészségszociológia, a szociális ökológia és a médiademokrácia korrelációját demonstrálja. A mai társadalmakban a média szerepe megkérdőjelezhetetlen az egészségre és a környezetre vonatkozó információk terjesztésében. A 2011. évi magyar Alaptörvény XXI. cikkelyének (1) bekezdése szerint mindenkinek joga van az egészséges környezethez. A környezetvédő média előmozdíthatja a környezeti igazságosság, a környezeti nevelés, a környezetvédő gazdaság stb. ügyét. Mindezek szükségesek ahhoz, hogy olyan társadalmat teremtsünk, ahol az egészséges környezet objektív érték. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 821–823.
Authors:Andriy Danyliv, Tetiana Stepurko, Irena Gryga, Milena Pavlova and Wim Groot
The principle of free-of-charge health care services is written in the Ukrainian Constitution. However, the state fails to implement this principle in practice. Our analysis confirms that in spite of the proclaimed free-of-charge health care services, many Ukrainian patients pay for health care services and these payments are considerable. As much as 57% and 73% of patients using out-patient and in-patient services respectively reported having spent money for this. Among those who paid for health care services, the average annual expenditure is 636 UAH for out-patient services and 2,019 UAH for hospital services. Patients who paid formally on average spent 555 UAH for out-patient services per year, while those who paid informally, spent about 337 UAH. This unregulated patient payment system is a threat to the population’s health as it prevents many patients from obtaining the health care that they need. Hence, the current’ free-of-charge’ system does not work properly and cannot sustain the health of the nation any more. There is a need for a thoroughly designed official and transparent payment system as well as structural financial reforms.
Arato , Andrew and Miklósi , Zoltán , Constitution Making and Transitional Politics in Hungary in Miller , L. and Aucoin , L. (eds): Framing the state in times of transition: case studies in constitution making (United States Institute of
Authors:D. Yadav, S. Gupta, V. Kulkarni, K. Rai and R. Behl
Inheritance of male sterility and fertility restoration of the A
system of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility in pearl millet was investigated using 12 crosses among three diverse male sterile lines (A-lines) and four diverse restorers (R-lines). Individual plants from R- lines were used to make crosses on A-lines. The segregation pattern of male sterile (S) and male fertile (F) plants observed in F
in two seasons at ICRISAT, Patancheru was suggestive more likely of a single-gene control of male sterility and fertility restoration. However, a 3-gene model of male sterility/fertility restoration where dominant alleles at any two of the three duplicate complimentary loci will lead to male fertility could not be ruled out, nor could be ruled out a 2-gene control with duplicate interaction. There was indication of variability even within a highly inbred R-line for fertility restoration gene(s). Depending on the genetic constitution of the R-lines at these loci, even the 3-gene model can lead to single-gene segregation ratios as observed in most of the F
and backcrosses, and 2-gene ratios as observed in a few F
and backcrosses. The deviations from these expected ratios in some of the crosses influenced by modifiers and environmental conditions generally resulted from the excess of fertile plants in the rainy season or excess of sterile plants in the dry season, the more so in crosses involving an A-line which has been reported to be relatively more unstable for male sterility.
Authors:Dániel Babai, Viktor Ulicsni and Ákos Avar
The multi-faceted relationship of society and wildlife is partly shaped by local perception determined by cultural or economic factors and resulting in positive or negative attitudes. The approach taken may influence the survival and the range of species and speciesgroups, in particular species associated with extremely negative emotions.
Connections between local communities and wild vertebrate species were studied in four regions within the Carpathian Basin (Gömör/Gemer — Slovakia, Szilágyság/Sălaj — Romania, Gyimes/Ghimeş — Romania and Drávaszög/Baranja — Croatia). During the work, spontaneous manifestations obtained in semi-structured interviews aiming at the exploration of the locally known fauna were taken into account.
Reviewing the five generally known families of vertebrates it can be stated, that — similarly to the global trends — the perception of amphibian and reptile species is extremely negative in the Carpathian Basin just as well. Most positive attitudes are related to bird species but due to presumed or true economic reasons some birds also include less favoured species. As to mammals, large predators are seen as harmful pests for husbandry and fearful for humans. The antipathy felt for bat species is an interesting phenomenon, mostly explained by their special physical constitution and mysterious lifestyle.
The perception of local communities originating from cultural or economic factors and resulting in varying signs may have an impact on the size of the populations of certain species or species-groups. Ethnozoological research provides significant help to deeper knowledge about background of connections between local communities and species of wildlife, motivations behind the activities of society has become of paramount importance for development of conservation strategies.
Authors:R.O. Akinwale, M.A.B. Fakorede, B. Badu-Apraku and A. Oluwaranti
Genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplot produces a graphical display of results that facilitates a better understanding of complex genotype-by-environment interaction in multi-environment trials of breeding and agronomic experiments. However, the full potential and weaknesses of this powerful tool are not fully understood by breeders, agronomists, entomologists and pathologists. The objective of this paper was to review the usefulness of this statistical tool and enumerate some of its weaknesses. Its main application has so far been in the analysis of multi-environment data. It has been used to analyze the performance of crop cultivars under multiple stress environments, from which ideal cultivars, mega-environments, and core testing sites were identified. More recently, GGE biplot has been employed in genetic analysis of diallel data to estimate the combining abilities and identify heterotic groups among inbred parents. Genotype-by-trait biplot has also been utilized in trait profile analysis, and in identification of traits that are reliable for indirect selection of a target primary trait. Two major shortcomings of this tool are (i) failure to identify more than two distinct, contrasting groups in diallel studies and (ii) lack of statistical tests for most of its graphical displays. Other aspects of GGE biplot that need further study and development are (i) estimation of genetic variances, covariances, and heritability, including the analysis of data generated from North Carolina Designs I, II, and III as well as other genetic designs, considering their importance in plant breeding programs; (ii) analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) data for proper understanding of the genetic constitution of each individual plant or line; and (iii) analysis of Genotype-by-pathogen or insect strain interaction data. Nevertheless, GGE biplot has helped greatly in the accurate analysis and interpretation of data from breeding and agronomic field evaluation experiments.
Authors:A. Pour-Aboughadareh, J. Ahmadi, A.A. Mehrabi, A. Etminan and M. Moghaddam
The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.