The study examines the most important tendencies of development of Polish fiction after 1989. While it had always been typical that particular periods of literature continuously changed according to current political tendencies, this one after 1989 was a dramatic change in paradigm never experienced before. With the exhaustion of the romantic paradigm, dominating Polish literature since the 19th century, the previous axiological model came to an end. The abolishment of censorship paradoxically led to a temporary “lack of subject matter”. There appeared a transitional period of crisis even in the most significant oeuvres. The confrontation of views has replaced the confrontation of official and non-official political values in literary works. Prior to the changes of 1989, the canon of political resistance had previously aimed at defeating a common enemy. With the realization of democracy, those earlier marching together took separate roads. Literature is trying to find out how Polish people are getting accustomed to the new social and economic conditions. The creation of new literature is associated with contemporary classics (Konwicki, Redliński), and also with younger Gretkowska, Huelle, Pilch, Stasiuk, Tokarczuk and Tryzna. Among the thematic trends, the dominance of the existentialist line is obvious, especially the renaissance of rustic themes, that is the great number and popularity linked to gender.
“Catholic philosophy” has a threefold meaning. First, it refers descriptively to the understanding of philosophy throughout the history of Catholic Christianity. After the decline of Hellenism, philosophy in the Greek sense did not survive anywhere else than in Catholicism; the works of the Latin Fathers, the theologians of the Middle Ages, and the Catholic philosophers of the Renaissance and modern periods thereafter not only saved philosophy from historical disappearance but contributed to its revival and new developments. “Catholic philosophy”, in the second sense, is the historical matrix in which philosophy of our time has emerged. That is to say, the modern and contemporary meanings of philosophy are marked by their difference from theology properly so called. Thirdly, Catholicism has always considered philosophy as centrally important to the Catholic doctrine. No other Christian denomination has ever shown such an intense, complex, and systematic interest in maintaining and developing philosophy. Thus, “Catholic philosophy” has the third meaning of a historic achievement in which philosophy could grow into its modern forms. In this essay, I investigate the historical development and the contemporary possibilities of Catholic Philosophy.
In the previous research, two periods were distinguished in the history of the intellectual connections between the Low Countries and Hungary in the early modern age. The first period, terminating at the beginning of the 17th century, was characterized with the impact of Renaissance Humanism, while in the second one, lasting from the 1620s to the end of the century, Cartesian philosophy and Puritan theology were mentioned among the effects reaching Hungary. This paper deals with the traces of the intellectual and literary history of Hungary and Transylvania that can be connected to the extensive philological scholarship practiced at the universities of the Netherlands. The Hungarian crowd of students invading the university of Leiden from the end of the 1610s — the university which was in the contemporary frontline of philological reflection and was also exceptional in the field of philological practice — faced the consequences of philological conceptions, especially of those permeated from Latin Humanism into the field of theology either gaining validity there or provoking intense discussion. This way, the effect of the Dutch Humanism did not decrease in this second period but — on the contrary — it just reached the zenith of its expansion and significance, being synthesized in a broader education programme.
Central Europe (Europe-Between, Zwischeneuropa) belonged to the sphere of German cultural influence. Western intellectual trends came also through German language areas either directly or indirectly by transmitting ideas (e.g.: the products of Renaissance intellectual trends or the ideas of the Enlightenment). At the same time the peoples of the region were also in direct connection with one another. In several cases the rulers of Hungary, Bohemia and Poland had been the members of the same dynasties but there were periods when personal union was the form of governance. The institutionally organised protection of the mother tongue, the establishment of national literature and science took place at different times and lasted from the beginning of the sixteenth century until the end of the nineteenth century, with the exception of the Czech language. This vision of cultural history is presented in this lecture by comparing the similarities and the differences in reading history of the region. The first examples are taken from the Protestant Reformation and its preceding Spiritual and Humanist movements. I will discuss the direct connections between Hungary and Livonia (through the two examples of the Hungarian translation and publication of Georg Ziegler’s book and the Hungarian students of the Papal Seminary of Riga) touching also upon the shared university studies of students from several nations of Europe-Between (in Bologna, Padova, Wittenberg, Heidelberg, Strasburg, etc.).
This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.
The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.
The article analyses the development of Crimean studies from the end of the 18th century until today. It is only after the Russian annexation of the Crimea that the scholars started seriously studying the Crimean peninsula, its history, ethnography, geography, and other disciplines. At the end of the 18th and early 19th centuries the historico-ethnographic information was collected largely by state officials and travelling scientists of non-Russian origin. In the first half of the 19th century the Crimea was already studied by professional ethnographers and historians; it is in this period that the museums of antiquities were established in Kerch and Theodosia. A major wave of interest in the Crimea in Russia and in Europe took place as a consequence of the Crimean war in the 1850s. In the second half of the 19th century the Crimea continued to be studied by professional scholars; a special organisation TUAK was established to control the state of the Crimean antiquities. The study of the Crimea by Soviet scholars folded in the 1930s with the Stalinist purges of “bourgeois nationalists” in science. The period of the 1930s–1980s was characterised by stagnation in Crimean studies. The renaissance of the study of the Crimea began at the end of the 1980s; it coincides with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea in 1991.
In the late mediaeval and early modern period scattered communities of the Karaites (i.e. non-Talmudic Jews) settled in several regions of Eastern Europe such as the Crimea, Poland and Lithuania. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Karaites printed their books (mostly exegetical and theological works in Hebrew) in several Karaite and Rabbanite typographies. Nevertheless, after 1917 the centre of Karaite printing shifted from the Russian Empire to interwar Poland and Lithuania. Surprisingly, a tiny Karaite community of interwar Poland and Lithuania (ca. 800 individuals) had been publishing as many as five periodicals in three languages! Furthermore, the Karaites also printed quite a number of separate brochures and leaflets, and published articles in non-Karaite periodicals. From the 1930s the Karaite community started losing its Judeo-Karaite identity and accepted a new Turkic ethnic self-identification which was based mostly on the use of the Turkic Karaim language and a few pseudo-scholarly theories testifying to the non-Semitic origins of the Karaites. The renaissance of Karaite printing was stopped in 1939, with the Soviet intervention in Poland and the beginning of the Second World War. The paper analyses the main tendencies in the development of the Karaite printing in Poland and Lithuania in the interwar period. A special emphasis is placed upon the role of printing in the unusual transformation of the East European Karaites’ ethnic identity — from pious non-Talmudic Jewish believers to an isolated ethnic enclave with a bogus Khazaro-Turkic identity.
The actually standing Calvinist church of Boldva is of a royal founding. The building functioned as a Benedictine abbey around 1175–1180. The archaeological excavations conducted between 1976 and 1982 uncovered 68 graves within the church. A 14–16 years old girl lay in grave no. 21 in perfectly preserved renaissance clothes. She probably died in 1567 or 1568 and she was a member of the Putnoky family of the Rátót clan. This family owned Boldva until 1570, and then the Basó family owned it for about 160 years. The girl’s uncle Mihály Basó lay in grave no. 14 and her mother Klára Basó in grave no. 17.
In the first book of his history, Herodotus interrupts his political narrative to offer a quick ethnographic survey of the Persians, wherein he remarks that Persians respect other ethnicities in proportion to their proximity to Persia and reserve their greatest disdain for the most distant peoples. For Herodotus and his 5th-century Greek audience, the Persian himself incarnates the category of the Barbarian, whose inferiority is a function of his distance from Greece. This article proposes to assess the role of ethnocentrism, and its correlation of proximity and superiority, in two of the most iconoclastic figures in the history of Western thought, the ancient Greek sophist Antiphon of Rhamnus and the French Renaissance author Michel de Montaigne. Recently excavated and edited papyrus fragments reveal tantalizing glimpses of Antiphon’s lost treatise On truth, which seems to formulate a very far-reaching critique of ethnocentrism within the framework of cultural relativism. In his renowned essay Des Cannibales (“Of Cannibals”), Montaigne formulates a remarkably similar critique in his portrayal of the Brazilians encountered by Europeans in their trans-Atlantic voyages of the 16th century. Both authors take their distance from normative cultural values in order to rethink the relation of proximity and superiority, but Montaigne adds a temporal dimension to his analysis by challenging our condescension to the past. The vicinity of Montaigne and Antiphon suggests a similar intuition into the reversibility of cultural values and the contingency of collective identity in space and time.
In the late twelfth century Platonic philosophy is gaining more and more importance for western thought in general, in particular for Christian theology. As part of this “Renaissance of the twelfth century” a new perspective is emerging, focusing on the reality of man and nature. In this context the Speculum uniuersale of Radulfus Ardens is an interesting example, which has, however, hardly been investigated. In his opus (containing 14 books) Radulfus Ardens constructs a virtue-ethical framework, for the first time connecting the morality of man systematically with anthropological facts and psychology. Radulfus Ardens receives the Platonic theory of soul and criticizes it in order to integrate some of its elements into his ethical concept. His main concern is a holistic perspective on man. The aim of this essay is to present an Early Scholastic concept of soul theory by comparing the Platonic theory of soul with the explanations of Radulfus Ardens in the first book of his Speculum uniuersale. Thus, I try to shed light on an important phase of the reception of Plato in medieval western thought.