Authors:A. Naik, N. Thakkar, S. Dharwadkar, K. Singh Mudher and V. Venugopal
Sodium zirconium phosphate [NaZr2P3O12], a potential ceramic matrix for fixation of high level nuclear waste, was synthesized by heating the mixture of sodium carbonate
[Na2CO3], zirconyl nitrate hydrate [ZrO(NO3)25H2O] and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate [NH4H2PO4] in air, in a resistance heated furnace and a microwave heating system respectively in the temperature range 450 to 650C.
The mixture heated for 1 h in a resistance furnace at 450C yielded a poorly crystalline NaZr2P3O12 [NZP]. Increasing the temperature to 650C produced a highly crystalline product. The same mixture heated in a microwave
oven at 450C for 1 h however, yielded the most crystalline NZP. In an alternate method, the mixture of sodium dihydrogen
phosphate (NaH2PO4), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4] heated in resistance furnace at 650C for the same period did not react in air. It also did not yield the pure product at
450C when heated in microwave assembly for 1 h.
Authors:G. Vourlias, N. Pistofidis, K. Chrissafis and G. Stergioudis
The oxidation resistance of ferrous materials at elevated temperatures is limited. For that purpose the performance of zinc
coatings deposited with hot-dip galvanizing, pack cementation and thermal spraying was considered. In the present work the
oxidation resistance of these coatings at 400�C was estimated with light microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray
diffraction. From this examination it was deduced that in every coating a scale that was mainly composed of ZnO was formed,
while Fe oxides were also detected in galvanized and pack coatings. However, the presence of the Fe/Zn phases inside the galvanized
and pack coatings led to the formation of cracks, which could expose the substrate and thus destabilize the coating. This
phenomenon was not observed in the thermal sprayed coatings, where the Fe/Zn phases were absent. In any case these cracks
are not likely to jeopardize the resistance of the coating because zinc is anodic to steel. Hence, from the above examination
it was deduced that the behavior of zinc coatings would be sufficient at 400�C.
Authors:Franco Cataldo, Pietro Ragni, Susana Iglesias-Groth and Arturo Manchado
The sulphur-containing proteinaceous amino acids l-cysteine, l-cystine and l-methionine were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. This dose corresponds to that delivered by radionuclide
decay in a timescale of 1.05 × 109 years to the organic matter buried at a depth >20 m in comets and asteroids. The purity of the sulphur-containing amino acids
was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the solid state radiolysis and the preservation of
the chirality after the radiolysis was studied by chirooptical methods (optical rotatory dispersion, ORD) and by FT-IR spectroscopy.
Although the high radiation dose of 3.2 MGy delivered, all the amino acids studied show a high radiation resistance. The best
radiation resistance was offered by l-cysteine. The radiolysis of l-cysteine leads to the formation of l-cystine. The radiation resistance of l-methionine is not at the level of l-cysteine but also l-methionine is able to survive the dose of 3.2 MGy. Furthermore in all cases examined the preservation of chirality after
radiolysis was clearly observed by the ORD spectroscopy although a certain level of radioracemization was measured in all
cases. The radioracemization is minimal in the case of l-cysteine and is more pronounced in the case of l-methionine. In conclusion, the study shows that the sulphur-containing amino acids can survive for 1.05 × 109 years and, after extrapolation of the data, even to the age of the Solar System i.e. to 4.6 × 109 years.
Authors:Ernő Tyihák, Ágnes Móricz, Judit Mátyási, Péter Ott and József Balla
The present and more recent observations suggest that the ozone is an indispensable, endogenous molecule form, and so it can be detected and measured practically in all biological systems. There are already different indirect and direct methods for the detection and measurement of this small molecule. The endogenous formation of ozone in the biological world may open a totally new horizon, e.g., in the topics of disease resistance and cell proliferation. Special efforts and more and more efficient methods are needed for observing the endogenous reactions and functions of this very reactive key molecule.
The radioactive boric acid wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been solidified with cement. One of the properties required for solidified radioactive wastes is resistance to leaching. The leachability of137Cs from solidified waste specimens prepared by various formulation has been studied according to the proposed ANS 16.1 Standard Leach Test. For the evaluation of radiological safety in the solidified radioactive waste disposal, the leachability indices have been determined from the leaching test data. The results have turned out to be 5.97–7.60, depending on formulation and solidifying matrix.
The use of ionizing radiation to achieve some desired effect on silica gel, applicable to the adsorption of radionuclides
has been investigated as a function of the dose-rate over a wide range of doses, in experiments with strongly alkaline aqueous
solutions containing an excess of UO
relative to trace concentrations of88Y,103Ru,134Cs and141Ce. The results obtained revealed that γ-irradiation of silica gel was reproduced with an uptake comparable to that measured
for the unirradiated-silica gel. Radiation resistance is strongly influenced by the basic macromolecular structure, the presence
of water, and the particular environmental exposure conditions.
Authors:P. Oliveira, L. Bernardi, F. Murakami, C. Mendes and M. Silva
Norfloxacin (NFX) is a synthetic antibacterial drug. The development of extended release tablets improves the patients’ comfort
and compliance, resulting in lower discontinuation of the therapy; with consequently decrease in bacterial resistance. In
the present work, the thermal behavior of NFX was investigated using TG and DSC techniques. Isothermal and non-isothermal
methods were employed to determine kinetic data of decomposition process. Compatibility studies between NFX and pharmaceutical
excipients, including three hydrophilic polymers were carried out in order to develop a new formulation of NFX to obtain extended
release tablets with an approved quality.
Authors:Yu. Bolbukh, P. Kuzema, V. Tertykh and I. Laguta
High-density polyethylene, its composites with hydrophilic/hydrophobic silica and the antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)
were studied using the thermogravimetric analysis. It has been shown that filling with silica as well as introducing BHT into
the unfilled polymer increases the thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer. Immobilized BHT is inactive and it suppresses
the stabilizing effect of hydrophobic silica surface in the processes of thermal oxidation at the initial stage. However,
being gradually released from the surface antioxidant prolongs the resistance of the polymer against oxidation.
Authors:A. Jiménez, A. Iannoni, L. Torre and J. Kenny
Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was used in this work to study the degradation kinetics of industrial PVC plastisols. In order
to model the pyrolitic degradation of plastisols in nitrogen, a kinetic model based on phenomenological considerations was
developed. Two different processes were observed during the first degradation stage. The model parameters, such as activation
energies and pseudo orders of reaction, were calculated using a non-linear regression analysis. The model developed was able
to describe the degradation behaviour both in isothermal and in dynamic modes. The results of such analysis were applied to
obtain long-term data from short-term experiments as an engineering approach to evaluate the thermal resistance of plastisols.
Summary In this work the kinetics of the high-temperature oxidation of the powder amorphous carbon and bulk single-wall carbon nanotubes is studied. The thermal degradation of the sample is measured by differential scanning calorimetry using the continuous heating regime up to 1273 K. Also, the oxidation resistance of the samples is evaluated by the mass loss in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both flowing and static oxygen and dry-air atmospheres are used. The specific role of the external diffusivity of the reagent gas is analyzed. The kinetics of the chemical reaction is specified using the Kissinger, Coats and Redfern methods.