The collecting work for the catalogue of the sepulchral monuments of mediaeval Hungary begun by Dénes Radocsay was resumed in 1979. The team of Lívia Varga, Pál Engel and Pál Lővei began assessing the sites with the active support of Miklós Mojzer.
In the course of the work we took note of a few tombs in the lettering of which the chiselled lines were filled with black or reddish brown materials, e.g. the tombslab of the Transylvanian bishop Imre Ónodi Cudar (†1389) in the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia), the tombstone of Mayor Augustinus Cromer (†1472) in the wall of the St Michael chapel in Kassa (Košice). At the beginning, we were only concerned with the provenance of the stones of the funerary monuments as a subsidiary research. The mentioned observations, however, led to the scientific investigation of the other materials on the surfaces only available today in few traces. This additional research might – in lucky cases – contribute to the determination of the typical use of materials by a certain workshop or period. X-ray diffractometry of dust was the useful method for the determination of the filling materials of the incised grooves. The set of phases determined by XRD revealed a varied use of materials, although the transformation caused by crumbling, particularly with organic glues, aggravated and sometimes foiled the reconstruction of the original materials.
The samples were uniformly determined by the iron as original colour-development material, either in form of oxidation (maghemite, hematite, goethite, wüstite), or as metal iron – the original colour was black.
The line from Bonfini's Decades used as a motto emphasizes the triumphal meaning of using marble, bronze and inscription together. For using red marble (replacing porphyry) there had been a tradition in Hungary since the late 12th century, when the Porta speciosa of the Esztergom Cathedral was built. The Bakócz Chapel of the same cathedral stands, as for the red marble, in the same tradition, but its inscription, executed in inlayed capital letters in guilt bronze, corresponds to another tradition too. Bronze letters represent a tradition of Antiquity which was kept by early (Salerno, San Vincenzo in Volturno, Corvey) and later (Bari, St-Denis, Westminster Abbey) mediaeval monuments, mainly in Italy. This tradition in Italy seems to have been the main source for the epigraphic style of the Esztergom Chapel.
Esztergom a középkori Magyarország egyik legfontosabb központja volt. A szárazföldi és vízi kereskedelmi útvonalak metszéspontjában megtelepült város királyi és érseki székhelyként több évszázadon át meghatározó szerepet töltött be az ország politikai, gazdasági és kulturális életében egyaránt. Ha szétnézünk a mai Esztergomban, nem sok jelét látjuk e korábbi fényes időszaknak. Sem a városban, sem a Várhegyen nem találkozhatunk jelentős kiterjedésű középkori emlékekkel, azokat a törökellenes háborúk nagyobbrészt elpusztították. A 18. század elején újjáéledő város a korábbi település elegyengetett romjain alakult ki, ezen a területen tehát régészeti kutatással számos középkori emlék hozható felszínre. Ezzel szemben a Várhegyen az ostromokat átvészelő maradványok áldozatul estek az érseki központ építésének, ezért itt a feltárásnak csak korlátozott lehetőségei vannak. A Várhegy forrásokból, illetve a 18-19. századi építkezéseket kisérő felmérésekből ismert középkori képét elsősorban a történészek és a régészek rajzolták meg. Ezen tanulmány a középkori emlékek pusztulásának és feltárásának történetéből kíván néhány említésre érdemes epizódot az Olvasó elé tárni azzal a nem titkolt céllal, hogy felhívja a figyelmet a Várhegy épületmaradványainak méltatlan utóéletére.
5. Keresztény Múzeum Esztergom (szerk. Cséfalvay Pál ). Budapest 1993, 245 .
6. A Perracchini család arcképe (1569), Róma, Galleria Colonna. Ahol külön megjelölés nincs, a datálás kérdésében az eddig
The Esztergom panel of Christ on the Cold Stone surrounded by the Instruments of the Passion, is analysed here in the context of woodcuts from the cercle of the Haarlem painter Jacob Bellaert, and dated between 1465–1470.
In this monographic study the life and the works of the Austrian sculptor Andreas Schroth is elaborated for the first time. He studied from 1803 at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in the classes of Franz Anton Zauner and Johann Martin Fischer. He was awarded in 1816 by a Silver medal and from 1818 to 1820 he was a Stipendiate. During his Prague stay in 1820–21 the bust of Count Joseph Colloredo was made. From 1823 to 1835 on behalf of Archbishop Sándor Rudnay he worked in Esztergom, and has contributed mainly decorative sculptures to the Neo-Classic Cathedral in construction. In 1823–24 he created the two statues of Genii in the entrance of the crypt, and between 1831–36 he made eight reliefs with the representations of the feasts of the Virgin for the Esztergom Church of St. Anne. In 1829 he made drawings illustrating the local almanach Urania, as well as the marble bust of Marshall Joseph Colloredo for the Vienna Arsenal on behalf of Emperor Francis I. In the years between 1830 and 1835 he was working for the Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma. Only fragments are preserved of the big lead relief decorating the West facade of the Abbey Church. After his return to Vienna he worked in 1838 in Esztergom on the Station reliefs of the Calvary and also for the Count Anton Keglevich in North Hungary. He transformed the facade of the Bohemian Church in Boskovice in 1844, and the relief of the Dead Christ between angels for the Abbey Church in Melk was made in the same year.
The son of a rich German burgher family of Kassa (Kaschau, Košice, today Slovakia), György Szatmári got into state administration after his studies in Krakow. The king, Vladislav II of the Jagellonian Dynasty (1490–1516) recompensed him for his services in the royal chancellary by ecclesiastic prebends. Besides his episcopal duties, he took over the chancellary leadership in 1498 and became the actual mastermind of Hungarian politics in the early 16th century. He had his proteges study in Italy and supported financially several humanists who sang the renown of the generous patron in their literary works. At the onset of his career he had the St Michael chapel in Kassa extended in late gothic style where only a stone ornament with his coat of arms represents the new, Renaissance style. His episcopal constructions in Pécs (1505–21) already show him as a real Renaissance art patron. The extant Renaissance tabernacle of the cathedral was carved by a Florentine master of the workshop of the Bakócz chapel in Esztergom, which is also adorned with his coat of arms. He had the episcopal palace of Pécs and the chapter house rebuilt in Renaissance style, and had a villa erected upon Francesco di Giorgio's plans on a hill above the town. Except for the ruined villa, his constructions only survive in a few fragments. The last station of his ecclesiastic career was Esztergom (1521–24) where he had the archbishop's palace rebuilt. His tomb erected in the cathedral perished, only written records informing us of it. His breviary preserved in the Bibliothčque Nationale in Paris was illumined by Boccardino il Vecchio in Florence in the mid-1510s.