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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Muharrem Çiçek, Özlem Tuncer, Asiye Biçakçigil, Nafia Canan Gürsoy, Barış Otlu and Banu Sancak
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In six healthy mares and 24 mares showing reproductive disorders swab samples were taken from the fossa clitoridis to isolate Taylorella equigenitalis, and from the uterus to isolate mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and other aerobic bacteria. Swab samples were also taken from the uterus for Chlamydiaantigen ELISA and ChlamydiaPCR studies. The uterus of 27 mares was examined cytologically, and biopsy samples were taken from the endometrium for histological examinations and for immunohistochemical examinations aimed at the detection of chlamydiae. T. equigenitalis, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and chlamydiae could not be detected from any of the mares examined. Aerobic facultative pathogenic bacteria were isolated from mares with endometritis in four cases. In 18 out of 22 mares with endometritis (82%) no infective agents could be demonstrated. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of non-infectious causes of endometritis and of anaerobic bacteria often detectable in the uterus in the aetiology of the reproductive disorders observed.

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Biofertilizers are used to improve soil fertility and plant production in sustainable agriculture. However, their applicability depends on several environmental parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of free-living bacteria containing fertilizer on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Delicates) under aluminium (Al) stress. Different responses to Al stress of cucumber growth parameters were examined in terms of root elongation and physiological traits, such as Spad index (relative chlorophyll value), biomass accumulation of root and shoot, Al uptake and selected element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) of leaves and root. The applied bacteria containing biofertilizer contains Azotobacter chroococcum and Bacillus megaterium. The dry weights of cucumber shoots and roots decreased in line with the increasing Al concentration. Due to different Al treatments (10−3 M, 10−4 M) higher Al concentration was observed in the leaves, while the amounts of other elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Mg) decreased. This high Al content of the leaves decreased below the control value when biofertilizer was applied. In the case of the roots the additional biofertilizer treatments compensated the effect of Al. The relative chlorophyll content was reduced during Al-stress in older plants and the biofertilizer moderated this effect. The root/shoot ratio was decreased in all the Al-treatments in comparison to the control. The living bacteria containing fertilizer also had a modifying effect. The root/shoot ratio increased at the 10−4 M Al2(SO4)2 + biofertilizer and 10−4 M Al(NO3)3 + biofertilizer treatments compared to the control and Al-treatments. According to our results the biofertilizer is an alternative nutrient supply for replacing chemical fertilizers because it enhances dry matter production. Biofertilizer usage is also offered under Al polluted environmental conditions. Although, the nutrient solution is a clean system where we can examine the main processes without other effects of natural soils. The soil can modify the results, e.g. the soil-born microorganisms affect nutrient availability, and also can modify the harmful effects of different heavy metals. The understanding of basic processes will help us to know more about the soil behaviour.

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The main purpose of this study was to determine optimum conditions for culture of a test microbe Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) which enabled us to establish its use for direct bioautography. The viability of the bacteria on TLC plates was measured on the basis of their adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) content as determined by bioluminescent luciferin/luciferase assay, the data being referred to values for total bacterial protein. In the first experiments, we used a ‘20-h’ culture of B. subtilis prepared by dilution of an optical density ( OD ) ≫ 0.4 culture to furnish a culture of OD = 0.4 (Method A). Later, on the basis of our optimization experiments we found that a ‘5–9-h’ broth culture of B. subtilis was suitable. Under these conditions the bacteria remained in the log phase ( OD = 0.2–0.4) for 5–9 h (Method B) in immersion bacterial suspension. Because the test bacteria were in the log phase a much shorter incubation time (4–8 h) was sufficient for TLC plates instead of the original 18 h in a previous study. One advantage of this method, in addition to the shorter incubation time, is that we can use TLC plates coated with adsorbents other than silica.

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bacterium so far established in Yugoslavia. Plant Protection (Zaš bilja), Belgrade, 219, 57-66 (in Serbian with English summary). Host Plants of the Erwinia amylovora bacterium so far established in Yugoslavia

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. M. ( 2003 ): Innate and adaptive immune responses to an intracellular bacterium, Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain . Microbes Infect. 5 , 135 – 142 . Feldman , K. A

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metabolism. To date, to our knowledge there are no studies on characterisation of the growth of this bacterium using a calorimetric method. Thus, in this study, a Calvet microcalorimeter was used and several experiments were carried out with concentrations

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Introduction Weeksella virosa is a Gram-negative bacterium first described in 1970 by Pickett and Manclark [ 1 ]. This organism grows on blood agar and chocolate agar after 48 h of incubation at 22, 35, and 42 °C

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Cristina Rodriguez, Nathalie Warszawski, Nicolas Korsak, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée and Georges Daube

expand and the possibility of zoonotic and food transmission of the bacterium is still the main focus of several research reports [3] . However, an isolation procedure for research purposes has not yet been standardized. In recent years, a large number

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-Gatius , F. ( 2012 ): Dynamics of Coxiella burnetii antibodies and seroconversion in a dairy cow herd with endemic infection and excreting high numbers of the bacterium in the bulk tank milk . Res. Vet. Sci. 93 , 1211 – 1212

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