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, Q., Niewold, T. A., Klasing, K. C., Janssens, G. P. J., Baumgartner, M. and Goddeeris, B. M. (2007): Dietary L-carnitine supplementation enhances the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute phase protein response in broiler chickens. Vet. Immunol

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35 44 Somlyay, I. and Várnagy, L. (1988): Effects of various pesticides on plasma biochemistry of chicken embryos. Microbios Letters 39 , 7

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694 706 Reece, R. L. and Frazier, J. A. (1990): Infectious stunting syndrome of chickens in Great Britain: Field and experimental studies. Avian Path. 19, 723

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): Influence of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin singly and in combination on broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 68 , 867–872. Rottinghaus G. E. Influence of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin singly and

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., Fischer da Silva, A. V., Ariki, J., Hooge, D. M. and Cummings, K. R. (2003): Dietary electrolyte balance for broiler chickens exposed to thermoneutral or heat-stress environments. Poult. Sci. 82 , 428

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Broiler chicken and rabbit experiments were carried out to study the effects of nickel (Ni) supplementation on growth performance and Ni metabolism. ROSS cockerels and New Zealand White female rabbits were fed a diet containing Ni in concentrations of 0, 50 and 500 mg/kg in dry matter (DM). Dietary supplementation of 50 mg Ni/kg slightly improved the body weight gain (BWG) and had a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in broiler chickens. However, Ni added at a level of 500 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the BWG by 10% and resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) worse (2.3 ± 0.2 kg/kg) FCE. The relative weight of the liver in cockerels was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by Ni as compared to the control group (1.7 and 2.1% vs. 2.6%). The activity of AST and CHE enzymes was increased insignificantly by dietary supplementation of 500 mg Ni/kg, indicating damage of the liver parenchyma. The results of serum biochemistry were confirmed by a mild or moderate form of pathological focal fatty infiltration of the liver in broilers. Supplemental Ni of 50 mg/kg concentration resulted in non-significantly increased BWG in rabbits. Ni added to the diet at a level of 500 mg/kg reduced the digestibility of crude protein by 3-4% and that of crude fibre by 20-25% in rabbits. Approx. 98% of the ingested Ni was lost from the body via the faeces, 0.5-1.5% via the urine and approx. 1% was incorporated into the organs of rabbits. As a result of dietary supplementation of 50 and 500 mg Ni/kg, Ni accumulated in the kidneys (4.9 ± 0.5 and 17.1 ± 3.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.3 mg/kg DM), ribs (10.3 ± 0.4 and 10.4 ± 0.6 vs. 9.1 ± 0.6 mg/kg DM), heart (1.4 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg DM) and liver (1.3 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.05 mg/kg DM), as compared to the control animals. It can be stated that supplementation of the diet with 50 mg Ni/kg had slight but non-significant beneficial effects on the growth performance of broiler chickens and rabbits.

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An investigation into the influence of phytates on the in situ absorption of amino acids (lysine, glutamate and leucine) and glucose from the intestinal lumen of 3-week-old chickens was carried out. Birds were anaesthetised and the intestines exteriorised. Uptake of 5 mM of each nutrient over a 4-min period was measured in the presence of four phytate concentrations (0, 50, 250 and 500 mM). Five birds were used for each nutrient at each concentration of phytate tested. Leucine uptake decreased linearly (P < 0.001) and that of glutamate showed a tendency to decrease (P = 0.055) as the phytate concentration increased. Absorption of lysine and glucose were unaffected by the presence of phytate. In conclusion, phytate in the small intestinal lumen exerted a depressive effect on the absorption of specific free amino acids from the lumen. Its depressive effect was greatest for leucine followed by glutamate, and phytate had little effect on the absorption of lysine.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Attila Farsang, Ildikó Bódi, Orsolya Fölker, Krisztina Minkó, Zsófia Benyeda, Ádám Bálint, Anna L. Kiss and Imre Oláh

the bursa of Fabricius of chickens . J. Morphol. 279 , 17 – 26 . de Wit , J. J. ( 2000 ): Detection of infectious bronchitis virus . Avian Pathol. 29 , 71 – 93

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. , Balogh , N. , Wágner , L. , Lóth , I. and Németh , K. ( 2000 ): Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats with vitamin E supplementation on the antioxidant status of broiler chicken tissues . Acta Vet. Hung. 48 , 69 – 79

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References Adair , B. M. ( 2000 ): Immunopathogenesis of chicken anemia virus infection . Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24 , 247 – 255

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