If Augustus claims to be, as it is well-known, a new Romulus, he has also tried to set up his action and public image with regards to current collective representations related to other kings of Rome. Thus, his major religious policy helps him to become a new Numa, while particular attention he paid to priesthood, temple, and fecial rites get him as much closer to Tullus Hostilius than Ancus Marcius. As far as the second part of the royal period is concerned, it is much raised in his historical memory policy: his interest in Sibylline Books, but also in major projects carried out in Rome during his reign have contributed to see him as a new Tarquin, while censuses and both administrative and religious reorganisations of the Rome’s urban space the Princeps conducted remind us of a new Servius Tullius. Augustus systematically using the royal memory of Rome allowed him to hide the monarchical tropism of Hellenistic type of his regime under the guise of a return to oldest national traditions.
Polish political system over the past century – from republican and democratic governments with a strong parliament – to governments more akin to the monarchy, with a strong presidency, and even autocratic.The legacy of the so– called Polish
Austro-Hun-garian Monarchy. Simultaneously, it may facilitate reconsidering the topic if we bear in mind that Mahler’s identity itself changed as time passed, that is, that the formulation of his self-identity transpired in specific and evolving social
This study deals with the work The Hour of a Dead Language, a novel of an important figure of modern Polish literature, A. Kuśniewicz. The story is set on the periphery of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in the last year of World War I. The protagonist, Kiekeritz, who suffers from a lung disease, collects the fragmented object memories of the past in the hope of reconstructing it by building up a coherent story after returning home. The plot signifies the intertwining of microhistory and macrohistory. The death of the officer and the dissolution of the Monarchy run on parallel courses: the past cannot be brought to the present, it remains fragmental. After having looked for the language of the present in vain, the officer realises the universal decay. The language of the officer and that of the Monarchy parish, which is also shown by the allegory of nature, are perceived in the novel.
The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy’s military missions on the Balkans can provide the only experience in Hungarian history that can be connected with a notion of colonization. The paper scrutinises some Hungarian writers’ responses to that experience. Kálmán Mikszáth as a journalist shows a shift in attitude; he strongly criticized the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but eventually he proudly advertised a colonizing discourse. The most important monument of the 40-year connection with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Hungarian culture was János Asbóth’s monography in two volumes entitled
Bosnia and Herzegovina
. In that work the celebration of modernisation, westernisation, the development of economy and infrastructure does not imply racism and religious intolerance. The short stories by István Tömörkény that describe the military life in the sanjak Novi Bazar offer a careful analysis of the cultural and linguistic aspects of the experience of otherness in the multicultural Balkan environment.
Scorched-earth tactics are as old as warfare itself. Throughout Europe military commanders of the Early Modern Age used them, as the Persians did against the attacking Ottomans. Accordingly, along with his fellow-generals, Lazarus Freiherr von Schwendi, one of the best-known German military theorists and commanders of the 16th century, repeatedly urged that scorched-earth tactics be introduced in the Habsburg Monarchy’s Hungarian theatre of war against the Ottomans, and that territories lost after the fall of Buda in 1541 be laid waste. Despite this, the systematic and widespread use of these tactics was rather rare in the areas of Hungary in which the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire faced each other during the 16th and 17th centuries. When they were chosen, they were employed only to a limited extent. While most of the pay of the soldiers serving in the border-defence system protecting Central Europe was provided by the Austrian, Bohemian and German provinces of the Habsburg Monarchy, a significant proportion of their food came from regions of Hungary that were under Ottoman sway. At the same time, these regions were not just a source of foodstuffs for those serving in the chain of fortresses built against the Ottomans, but also an area which offered economic opportunities to broad social strata in the Kingdom of Hungary (nobles, border-fortress soldiers and market town peasants), primarily in the spheres of cattle-breeding and trade. As a result of all this, the systematic laying waste of these territories conflicted with the fundamental interests of Hungarian society and Estates. The serious political conflicts that would have accompanied the use of scorched-earth tactics (whose consequences would in any event have been uncertain) were never invited by the Habsburg military and political leadership.
In the Republic of Croatia there is a long tradition going on in carrying out systematic levelling works. These works have resulted, in the period of about 120 years, with the establishment of three fundamental levelling networks of geometric levelling. These are precise levelling network of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, I. levelling network of high accuracy and II. levelling network of high accuracy of former Yugoslavia. These networks are the basis of height system of the Republic of Croatia, and accompanied by adequate definitions of height datums they are used even today for solving fundamental and applied geodetic tasks and scientific researches.