In the Museum of Tata there is an unpublished Roman sarcophagus. Because of the hardly legible inscription it has been unpublished for decades. The sarcophagus was erected by a former beneficiarius to his wife and daughter. The structure of the inscription is very unusual with two clauses because the veteran had bought the sarcophagus when his wife was still alive, later he together with his children buried them both into the sarcophagus. Because of the damaged part two restoration possibilities have been proposed. The sarcophagus was made in a local workshop of Brigetio. The inscription can be dated to the middle of the 3rd century but before the reform of Gallienus in the 260s, as still a senatorial legatus legionis was mentioned.
I would like to prove that the picture in the stock of the Esztergom Christian Museum attributed as North Italian painter, end of 16th century, Noble Man in Armor was painted by the unknown Bergamo follower of Francesco Terzi (Bergamo, 1523 – Roma 1591) around 1569.
I certify the attribution and its dating by comparing it with the works of Terzi. Francesco Terzi court painter and graphical artist worked mainly in Austria. The main point of the painting is that – according to my researches – it portrays Ferdinand II, the Habsburg Archduke, famous collector, who himself ordered many works of Terzi. I bring up analogies to this attribution representing Ferdinand II. I describe the opinions of researchers in the question of attributing and dating these works and also take a position in it.
The study is devoted to a critical analysis of the recent conservation work made in the course of the millennary festivities on three important monuments of Hungarian art history. These important sources of art historical knowledge were treated by different methods of preservation (from conservation to reconstruction or new building). The adequacy of these methods is discussed in this paper. The monuments in question are as follows: the ruins of the royal Provostry Church of the Blessed Virgin in Székesfehérvár (11th to 15th centuries; see also P. Biczó below), the royal (later archiepiscopal) Castle in Esztergom (earlier buildings: 10th to 12th century, existant buildings: late 12th to 16th century with later alterations), the Royal Residence in Visegrád (14–15th centuries, see also L. Varga below).
The Madonna (inv.no. 55.187) in the Christian Museum of Esztergom from the former Bertinelli collection was first attributed to Pesellino by Bernard Berenson (1932). Most recently (2004) Megan Holmes identified it mistakenly as an early replica of the Boston variant, although it seems to be made around 1450, about seven years earlier. The infrared reflectography of the Madonna in Esztergom (2009) revealed that the underdrawing of the painting was carried out with the help of pricked cartoon and the spolvero technique, but the artist elaborated it in great detail and modified the forms at several points. A comparison with the underdrawing of the Boston version made it clear that in the latter case the artist did not apply the same cartoon and used quite different working methods. The aesthetic effect of the Esztergom picture, the sophisticated combination of drawing and painting skills ascribes it a special place among contemporaneous paintings examined in the same manner.
A progress report on a research dealing with the attribution and localisation of a curious painting. The iconography, the motifs and the composition show many links with the pictorial tradition of the subject-matter in the Netherlandish art of the 15th-16th centuries. But the support is not the usual oak panel used there and the style is not to be linked with any known hand. The painting might have been painted by an emigrant or wandering Flemish painter either in France or in Spain, but it can not be localised exactly. It is an remarkable example of the radiation of Flemish painting and style in the mid-16th century.
The Christian Museum in Esztergom preserves an epitaph depicting the Death of the Virgin Mary. The panel painting, dated by its inscription to 1498, was ordered by Stephan Geinperger, then burgher of Wiener Neustadt, for his deceased wife, Dorothea Gerolt. The donor’s name was for a long time misread as “Heinperger”, thus hindering his identification. The correct transcription made it possible to reveal information about the person of the donor and detect his family and their kinship network in the contemporary written documents. Based on the inscription and the archival material in Wiener Neustadt, Knittelfeld, Nuremberg, Passau and other related towns, the lives of Geinperger and his wife could be reconstructed and a stepfamily could be identified. In addition, the original placement of the epitaph was determined as was the social topography of the related families in Wiener Neustadt, including their economic and social importance. Moreover, art historical analysis placed the painting in the artistic milieu of the wider region.
In this paper, the construction of the “corona latina”decorated with a rich filigree work is considered as a terminus ante quem for the dating of its enamels. The art historical construction of a circle of filigree-decorated objects (royal sceptre, Salzburg cross, objects found in Székesfehérvár graves) and their dating from the late 12th century are here discussed. The author expresses his doubts on the homogeneity of the group. On the basis of parallels with western goldsmiths' works of the second half of the 11th century a similar date is proposed for the filigree work of the corona latina.
Archbishop of Esztergom György Lippay’s (1600–1666) summer residence and garden in Pozsony were represented on a series of engravings published in 1663. A hitherto unknown piece of this series features the eastern view of the residence (Bibliotheca Ecclesiae Metropolitanae Strigoniensis, Esztergom; fig.). The sheet bears the signature of Johann Jacob Khün, painter to the archbishop who supposedly produced the drawings for the entire series.
According to various sources most of which were concluded by Klára Garas, Khün came from a family of over four generations of painters and sculptors originated in Besztercebánya. The present study attempts to uncover documents representing Khün’s family relations and personal connections in the milieu of the archbishop’s court at Pressburg.
Only a few sources remain on Johann Jacob Khün’s work in archbishop Lippay’s service. Based on a few miscellaneous allusions and the painter’s recently recovered letter written to the archbishop’s physician and familiar Polycarpus Procopius Bonannus (d. 1664) in 1659, the author presumes that Khün was the grandson of Jacob Khien the elder (d. after 1619) who created the so-called Zmeskál epitaph (Berzevice, c. 1600). Johann Jacob Khün’s father was probably the painter Jacob Khien the younger who became a burgess of Besztercebánya in 1619. Pozsony sculptor Johann Christoph Khien (d. 1696/97), creator of the Holy Trinity column of Nagyszombat (1683–1695), and Ferdinand Khien, a doctor born in Besztercebánya who graduated at the University of Wittenberg (1667) and later worked in Eperjes and Pozsony were probably Johann Jacob Khün’s brothers. Judging by the 1659 letter and other sources, Khün’s brother Ferdinand may well have been helped with the starting of his medical career by Bonannus who probably interceeded for him to spend his pharmacist’s training in Johann Weber’s (1612–1684) pharmacy in Eperjes.
Khün’s letter implies that he may well have produced illustrations for Bonannus’s ambitious but ultimately unpublished and lost opus describing Hungary’s geographical and mineralogical treasures, entitled De admirandis Hungariae rebus, backed by archbishop Lippay and Lord Chief Justice Ferenc Nádasdy (1623–1671). The correspondence of Bonannus, a rare group of sources, provides some important data to the project and Khün’s surmized participation, and might as well lead to closer acquaintance with the process of furnishing and decorating of archbishop György Lippay’s summer residence and garden of Pozsony.
A year after the publishing of the print series Khün already worked as a court painter to Count (later Palatine and Prince) Pál Esterházy (1635–1713). Between 1664 and 1671 he produced at least eight paintings for him, and decorated sixteen rooms of his Kismarton Castle.