Authors:Tímea Kaszab, Blanka Halasi and Zoltan Kovacs
The fiber intake is an important part of the human diet. The fiber-deficient nutrition may have long-term health problems. Oat (Avena sativa) is an excellent source of fiber and it has many health benefits due to its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Oats are used as flour and flakes in the food industry. The oat-flakes can be used in a variety of cakes, but it can be also consumed as breakfast cereals or porridge.
The objective of our work was to determine the effect of the sugar content and sugar types on main sensory parameters of oat-flakes biscuit. During the experiments, six different types of biscuit were made with the addition of white or brown sugar at three different concentration levels. The moisture content, color, and the frangibility of the samples were analyzed during the 4-day storage period. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also performed on the first day of storage.
The parameters of the rupture test and color measurement did not show significant changes during the storage, but the individual types of biscuits made of different types and quantities of sugar could be well distinguished. Results of sensory evaluation showed significant differences in frangibility, structure and stickiness parameters.
Authors:M. Hódsági, Á. Jámbor, E. Juhász, S. Gergely, T. Gelencsér and A. Salgó
Resistant starches (RSs) are broadly investigated as appropriate additives in starch-based products due to their well-known and proved health benefits. However, it was shown in previous studies that these starches are sensitive of the different heat treatments used in the food processing, which can cause changes, especially in the resistance. There is an increasing trend to use microwave (MW) energy in food processing; therefore, our aim was to investigate the changes of RSs compared to native starches caused by MW heating. Maize, wheat, RS2 and RS4 starches were MW-treated according to a 2×2 experimental design (300 and 600 W of power, 30 and 150 s of time). The changes of in vitro digestibility, rheological properties (rapid visco analyser, RVA) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic characteristic were studied. Two spectrophotometers were applied (dispersive and Fourier-transform (FT)) to compare their sensitivity in the analysis of the MW-treated starches.Results showed that the digestibility of starches did not show any tendencies when increasing the microwave energy of treatments, the characteristics of the kinetic curves remained unchanged. The RVA analysis showed that the RSs did not gelatinize after the heat-treatments. The MW heating weakened the rheological properties of all starches. The NIR analysis was the most sensitive device for the detection of the effects of MW treatments. The analysis of the most characteristic carbohydrate regions (2080–2130 and 2270–2290 nm) highlighted structural alterations of the starches; moreover, the dispersive spectrophotometer was found to be more sensitive in the analysis of starches than the FT-one.
Authors:Amanda Seemungal, Andrea Petróczi and Declan Naughton
The potential health benefits of wine are frequently attributed to the antioxidant properties of its phenolic constituents. In this study, the antioxidant efficacies of five phenolic components of a red wine were assessed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and metal ions ([Fe3+], [Fe2+], [Cu2+]), using functional thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The pH of the red wine sample was adjusted to 2.0 without prior extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid 30:25:5 (ν/ν) as mobile phase. Five phenolic components (one flavonol and four phenolic acids) were identified. In independent experiments, the red wine was challenged with a range of oxidant systems comprising H2O2, redox-active metals (Fe3+ and Cu2+), and hydroxyl radical generators (Fe2+-H2O2 and Cu2+-H2O2). The results showed that all phenolic compounds gradually diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All systems tested showed that quercetin, caffeic acid, and gallic acid possessed the highest antioxidant efficacies, while chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid exhibited lower antioxidant capacities. Based on these results, the ranking order of the antioxidant efficacies of the phenolic components in the red wine sample was as follows: quercetin > caffeic acid > gallic acid > p-coumaric acid > chlorogenic acid. This is the first application of functional TLC to delineate the antioxidant profile of red wine in the presence of different oxidant systems involving redox-active metals and H2O2, and to rank the individual components according to their antioxidant efficacies.
Increasing awareness of the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids has led to studies related to the manipulation of the fatty acid composition of animal products. These fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3), are abundant in foods of marine origin. Fish consumption is, however, limited by seasonal availability, affordability and consumers' preference. Recent studies on the provision of n-3 fatty acid rich foods have therefore centred on the enrichment of products such as poultry meat through feeding fish oil diets. However, decreased quality (storage and flavour) has been associated with products from poultry fed such diets. Other dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids such as fish meal and plant seed oils result in minor improvement of the quality and low levels of EPA and DHA in the enriched product. Supplementation of high levels of vitamin E or other synthetic antibiotics in diets may increase oxidative stability and hence the storage quality of n-3 fatty acid enriched broiler meat. However, their reported influence on off-flavour is conflicting. Other methods of reducing off-flavour in enriched meat involving the use of processed n-3 PUFA sources although may reduce off-flavour, result in reduced deposition of EPA and DPA. Marine algae (MA) is an attractive source of n-3 fatty acids because it is a primary rich source of DHA and contains naturally occurring carotinoids, which are useful for their antioxidant activity. Investigations into the use of MA and identification of cheaper sources of n-3 PUFA for the enrichment of broiler chicken are needed. In addition, the search for viable methods of reducing off-flavour in n-3 enriched broiler meat should continue. The production of high quality and affordable broiler meat is essential for realising the full benefits associated with the consumption of n-3 fatty acid enriched products.
Authors:László Ságodi, Enikő Sólyom and Emőke Kiss-Tóth
A gyermekkori elhízás egyre növekvő gyakorisága komoly közegészségügyi probléma.
Ma már elfogadott tény, hogy a csecsemőtáplálásnak az emberi fejlődés korai,
kritikus időszakaiban (első 1000 nap) hosszú távú hatása lehet a későbbi
egészségre. A szerzők a fogantatástól számított első 1000 nap csecsemőkorra eső
időszakával foglalkoznak, irodalmi tallózás alapján. 2010 óta nagyszámú
közlemény jelent meg, amelyben a csecsemőtáplálás, korai súlygyarapodás és a
későbbi elhízás közötti összefüggést vizsgálták. Többségükben azt igazolták,
hogy a szoptatás jelentősen befolyásolja a korai növekedést, és hosszú távon
csökkenti az obesitas rizikóját. A szoptatás egészségügyi előnyei a tápszeres
etetéssel szemben elfogadottak, de a csecsemőtáplálás és a későbbi elhízás
közötti összefüggésről nincs teljes egyetértés a szakirodalomban. A szerzők az
ellentmondás okát keresték az irodalomban az utóbbi években fellelhető
közlemények alapján. Összegzésként megállapítják, hogy a legalább négy hónapig
tartó kizárólagos szoptatás fontos szerepet játszik a gyermekkori elhízás
kockázatának csökkentésében. A közleményekben fellelhető eltérő vagy nem
egyértelmű állásfoglalások magyarázata az a tény, hogy az obesitas kialakulása
és így a prevenciója multifaktoriális. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(24): 938–943.
Denman A. R., Phillips P. S., Tornberg R., Groves-Kirkby C. J. Analysis of the individual healthbenefits accruing from a domestic radon remediation program, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity , Vol. 79