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In recent years, technologically advanced methodologies such as Translog have gained a lot of ground in translation process research. However, in this paper it will be argued that quantitative research methods can be supplemented by ethnographic qualitative ones so as to enhance our understanding of what underlies the translation process. Although translation studies scholars have sometimes applied an ethnographic approach to the study of translation, this paper offers a different perspective and considers the potential of ethnographic research methods for tapping cognitive and behavioural aspects of the translation process. A number of ethnographic principles are discussed and it is argued that process researchers aiming to understand translators’ perspectives and intentions, how these shape their behaviours, as well as how translators reflect on the situations they face and how they see themselves, would undoubtedly benefit from adopting an ethnographic framework for their studies on translation processes.

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A confrontation of the sculptural remains of the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia with the relevant passage of Pausanias (V. 10.) is presented in order to undermine the commonly accepted reliability of the text for the interpretation of the pediment. A careful investigation shows that even in the case of the main figures the identifications given by the Perieget are far from being probable, and rather can be considered as fundamentally mistaken. The cumulative force of evidence makes it absolutely clear that the pediment did not depict the preparations for the chariot race between Pelops and Oinomaos, as Pausanias says. That was only a later interpretation, which has practically nothing to do with the original intentions of the sculptors.

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The paper investigates the documentary value of Gregory of Nyssa's letters. The use of different literary forms may constitute the cause of and the reason for some distortion of the real, historical facts. There is proportionality between undecorated speech and poetical formulation on the one hand, and truth opposing the delightfulness as the main goal of the speech on the other. This proportionality cannot be exaggerated. Rhetorical devices are not simple formal tools in Gregory of Nyssa's practice which are sometimes employed for illusionist purposes and are sometimes neglected on the ground of a rational decision. They constitute a language that enables the writer to tell us the truth or his feelings, his intentions in a good style. Second Sophistique and Christianity form a unified culture in Gregory of Nyssa's oeuvre, despite the self-contradictions, ambiguities and difficulties, which were partly recognized by himself.

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Abstract

Theory of Mind (ToM), the capacity to read mental states of other people, is a tool that allows individuals to function efficiently during social interactions. Although ToM has been studied extensively in clinical populations, few studies have focused on ToM capacity in the general population. In this study, the relationship between ToM and the personality construct Machiavellianism are investigated. In evolutionary terms, a link between exploitative strategy and ToM would be expected — in order to be a successful manipulator, an individual should have a good understanding of the emotions and intentions of others. We found that Machiavellianism was, in fact, negatively correlated with both hot and cold measures of Theory of Mind. We suggest that high-Machs have deficits in empathizing ability, which allows them to exploit others. The findings also question the idea of Machiavellian Intelligence as a driving force behind evolution of social intelligence in humans.

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Absztrakt:

A tanulmány az elvándorlási szándékok egyéni szinten megnyilvánuló befolyásoló tényezőit vizsgálja. Amellett érvelünk, hogy a humán tőke elméletben szereplő tételeken túl az intézményekbe vetett bizalom mértéke is befolyásolja a migrációs hajlandóságot. Álláspontunk szerint, ha az emberek nem bíznak abban, hogy az intézmények betöltik bizonytalanságcsökkentő funkciójukat, az kivándorlásra ösztönözheti őket. Hipotézisünket egyéni szintű Eurobarometer-adatokon, logit modell segítségével teszteljük. Eredményeink igazolják, hogy az intézményi működés, illetve az intézményi bizalom a migrációs folyamatok alakulásában is érdemi szereppel bírnak.

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Recognizing intentions of strangers from facial cues is crucial in everyday social interactions. Recent studies demonstrated enhanced event-related potential (ERP) responses to untrustworthy compared to trustworthy faces. The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of automatic processing of trustworthiness cues in a visual oddball paradigm in two consecutive experimental blocks. In one block, frequent trustworthy (p = 0.9) and rare untrustworthy face stimuli (p = 0.1) were briefly presented on a computer screen with each stimulus consisting of four peripherally positioned faces. In the other block stimuli were presented with reversed probabilities enabling the comparison of ERPs evoked by physically identical deviant and standard stimuli. To avoid attentional effects participants engaged in a central detection task. Analyses of deviant minus standard difference waveforms revealed that deviant untrustworthy but not trustworthy faces elicited the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component. The present results indicate that adaptation occurred to repeated unattended trustworthy (but not untrustworthy) faces, i.e., an automatic expectation was elicited towards trustworthiness signals, which was violated by deviant untrustworthy faces. As an evolutionary adaptive mechanism, the observed fast detection of trustworthiness-related social facial cues may serve as the basis of conscious recognition of reliable partners.

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A certain questio, which is entitled De unitate intellectus remained from the Master (St. Albert the Great) and also from his disciple (St. Thomas Aquinas). Both works deal with the question of the particular souls (cf. monopsychismus). The two works differ from each another in many aspects; moreover, there is not any textual similarity. St. Albert explains this question on the basis of potentia and actus, but St. Thomas employs the theory of substantia and accidens. St. Albert makes an important correction regarding this theme: in his opinion, potentia prima is the same as ens possibile in seipso and it is not the materia; moreover, actus primus is the same as ens necesse, and it is not the forma. But the most significant difference between the concepts of St. Albert and St. Thomas is that St. Albert has no intentions against the Averroists in his work, in some cases, he even speaks highly of them. Therefore, the question of unitas intellectus was independent of the Averroists, and it can be a topical question, too.

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Authors: György Lengyel, László Lőrincz, Viktória Siklós and Dániel Füleki

The study investigates the digital divide concerning computer literacy in Hungary. It examines the differences of computer literacy of people with different social-demographic characteristics (gender, settlement type, education, labor market presence and income). It also investigates the intentions to learn computer skills. In this respect, smaller differences have been found then in the case of actual knowledge, which predicts the narrowing down of digital divide in the future. An attempt has been made to identify the institutional, technical and primordial conditions in everyday life that may influence both computer literacy and inclination to master the computer, and hence may function as “bridges” over the digital divide. Four of these factors have been studied: access to computers at the workplace, public internet access at the settlement, communication via cellular phone and effect of the family members' ITC knowledge. Statistical analysis and in-depth interviews were used as methods of examination. Based on logistic regression models it was found that the bridging factors exert weak or insignificant influence on the willingness to learn computer skills - if they are controlled - so these factors alone are insufficient to bridge the digital divide.

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Ethnographical Heritage: Symbolic Capital. UNESCO’s position on the protection of intangible cultural heritage, set out in the form of international treaties, bears witness to noble intentions. At the same time, in the various countries the disciplines dealing with subjects that can be classified under the concept of heritage interpret the notion of “heritage” in different ways. Ethnology in particular is in a special situation in those countries where from the 19th century popular culture played a part in constructing and maintaining the national culture. Right from the start the intention of maintaining tradition, assistance for this and the study of the processes of change themselves were part of this work of construction. This research tradition is itself an “intangible cultural heritage”. Hungarian ethnology, that has been familiar with and assisted many forms of the preservation of the values of popular culture for more than a century now has elaborated a set of concepts and theoretical considerations that cannot be identified unequivocally with the texts of UNESCO. Seeing the overview of the international literature, we also wish to encourage ethnologists to discuss considerations, concepts and practices that represent views differing from their own research traditions. This is part of the development of the discipline.

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Az elmúlt években tapasztalható világgazdasági helyzet felértékelte a versenyképesség fontosságát, előtérbe helyezve ezzel az adminisztratív terhek csökkentésére vonatkozó törekvéseket az Európai Unióban. Jelen cikk játékelméleti és közgazdasági keretben vizsgálja a jogrendszer tranzakciós költségekre kifejtett hatásmechanizmusát, melyhez a kiindulási alapot a tranzakciók során jelentkező elköteleződés hitelessége adja. Az így felmerülő ígéretek és fenyegetések szempontjából elengedhetetlenül szükséges a megfelelő formális és informális intézmények megléte. A szabályozási környezet direkt és — a társadalmi bizalmon keresztül — közvetett módon is befolyásolja a tranzakciók költségét. A jogszabályok átláthatóvá, igazságossá és hatékonnyá tételével kereskedelemösztönző környezet hozható létre, mely növeli az adott gazdaság versenyképességét.

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