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frequency of 13.0% (6/46). These spa types are also frequently isolated from humans, and t1491 is associated with CC1. This lineage is widely distributed and consists of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains with low host specificity, thus

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hormones is lineage-independent. On the other hand, the presence of ACTH and T3 in the early maturation states of lymphocytes also denotes that their expression ubiquitous during lymphocyte development. However, the relative expression levels of both ACTH

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; 179: 5082–5089. 13 Cobb BS, Nesterova TB, Thompson E, et al. T cell lineage choice and differentiation in the absence of the RNase III enzyme Dicer. J Exp Med. 2005; 201: 1367

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target antigen loss in CAR19 therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Med. 2018; 24: 1504–1506. 41 Oberley MJ, Gaynon PS, Bhojwani D, et al. Myeloid lineage switch

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This paper reviews evidence from paleoanthropology about the mode and tempo of human evolutionary history. Rather than a gradualistic, “uphill” directional change as one species is transformed into another by selection, the fossil record indicates many species related to ours, some quite successful with respect to their longevity as a lineage. The implications of the fossil record include a revival of group selection, a recognition of groups as selective (and selected) environment, and a concern about the “grain” or complexity of adaptations.

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Pheromones have been detected in all fungal phylogenetic lineages. This came as a surprise, as the general role of pheromones in mate attraction was not envisioned for some fungi. Pheromones and pheromone receptor genes have been identified, however, in members of all true fungal lineages, and even for mycelia forming organisms of plant and amoeba lineages, like oomycetes and myxomycetes. The mating systems and genes governing the mating type are different in fungi, ranging from bipolar with two opposite mating types to tetrapolar mating systems (with four possible mating outcomes, only one of which leads to fertile sexual development) in homobasidioymcetes with more than 23,000 mating types occurring in nature. Pheromones and receptors specifically recognizing these pheromones have evolved with slightly different functions in these different systems. This review is dedicated to follow the evolution of pheromone/receptor systems from simple, biallelic bipolar systems to multiallelic, tetrapolar versions and to explain the slightly different functions the pheromone recognition and subsequent signal transduction cascades within the fungal kingdom. The biotechnological implications of a detailed understanding of mating systems for biological control and plant protection, in medicine, and in mushroom breeding are discussed.

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Abstract

In recent years, an increasing range of scientists from the fields of psychology, anthropology and archaeology are recognising the value of utilising Darwinian theory to study cultural transmission and evolution. Such an approach is based on recognition that culture involves a mode of inheritance (social transmission), variation of practice, and the differential representation of particular variants in subsequent generations due to a variety of sorting mechanisms. In other words, culture evolves via a process of “descent with modification”. Two immediate analytical implications arise from this. The first of these is that ‘population thinking’ must be applied to the study of cultural evolution; the second is that understanding the historical process of lineage decent and diversification (i.e. phylogeny) becomes an imperative research goal. Methodologies and principles designed to address these issues in biology can profitably be used to address such questions in cultural data. Here, case studies of Palaeolithic stone tools are used to demonstrate how these principles and methodological approaches may be applied to some of these early artefactual products of the human lineage. Such methods are shedding new light on this “most beautiful and most wonderful” of legacies left to us by our fossil relatives and ancestors.

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Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells are known as multipotent and exhibit the potential for differentiation into different cells/tissue lineages, including cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, tendon, ligament. These pluripotent mesenchymal progenitor cells are denoted as stromal or mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow contains two main cell types: hematopoetic cells and stromal cells. The stem cells for non-hematopoetic tissues are referred as mesenchymal cells because of their ability to differentiate as mesenchymal or stromal cells. Mesenchymal cells are easily obtainable from bone marrow by means of minimally invasive approach and can be expanded in culture and permitted to differentiate into the desired lineage. The differentiation can be reached by the application of bioactive, signaling molecules, specific growth factors. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily member proteins such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most important factors of chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesencymal stem cells. From the series of recently indentified, BMP 2,4 and 7 may play an important role in chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation proteins. Little is still known about the signaling pathway involved in tenogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, but there are some encouraging data about fibroblastic differentiation and affects of growth factors. The success of growth factor therapy needs a delivery system with biomaterials. Mesenchymal stem cells have become promising vehicles for gene therapy, cell therapy and tissue engineering. The authors deal in these review with the experimental investigations and with the clinical application of the adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells with bioactive molecules, growth factors.

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Abstract

Teenage pregnancy and motherhood are considered to be pressing social concerns and, in the majority of developed countries, are often viewed as problems in need of solutions. While a number of factors are associated with teenage motherhood, the underlying causes remain elusive. Despite a lack of consensus, policy aimed at ‘solving’ teenage motherhood is typically based on these proposed proximate correlates; addressing these, rather than the cause. Recent appraisals of this approach suggest that it may not be working effectively, if at all, and policy makers might be in need of some novel approaches. This paper discusses how policy decisions concerning reproductive timing may benefit from the perspective provided by evolutionary life-history theory, and why policy ought to take into account the hypothesis that teenage motherhood is the outcome of an adaptive response of an evolved reproductive strategy to conditions of risk and uncertainty; that having children at an earlier age may promote lineage survival when personal future is uncertain.

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The present study aims to examine the so-called Tantric Rebirth Movement, which is part of the general context of reforms that involved the whole Chinese Buddhist community at the beginning of the 20th century. It was a time when, probably under the influence of the first Western studies in Buddhology, all Asian Buddhist communities began to re-think their own traditions. In China, the main aim was to reform the monastic education and to compare Chinese Buddhism with its original Indian teachings and other Asian Buddhist traditions. Tantrism was generally considered to have disappeared after its 'golden age' during the Tang dynasty. Due to its esoteric nature, to study Tantrism one had to turn to Tibet or Japan because its lineages had been interrupted in China for centuries. A number of Chinese Buddhist monks began thus to participate in pilgrimages to Tibetan areas, becoming disciples of lamas. On their return to China, many of these monks devoted themselves to spreading the Tibetan teachings - and above all the Vajrayana ones - among Chinese Buddhists. Meanwhile, a similar movement was flourishing in the East, mainly focusing on Japanese Esoteric Buddhism. Many masters went to Japan so as to learn and practice the particular form of Tantrism which was widespread among Tendai and Shingon communities, and which was considered to be closely related to the original Chinese tantric teachings. The intention was the same as the 'reformist' monks, that is to deepen the understanding of a different Buddhist tradition, while at the same time re-vivifying the Chinese tantric lineages.

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