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In the last years of World War I, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály compiled a folksong selection One Hundred Hungarian Soldiers’ Songs from their own collections, requested by the Centre for Music History of the Monarchy’s War Ministry in Vienna. The collapse after the war interrupted the publication already in press. Parts of the song collection Kodály asked back in 1921 were returned in 1940 through diplomatic intervention. Later the manuscript was lost, but some parts have been found in the Kodály estate recently. However, the tunes are still latent; not even Kodály knew in his last years where they were. The present paper discusses the circumstances of the volume’s genesis and fate, and as a new development, the process of reconstructing the music section on the basis of the segments of the manuscript found in the estate (introduction and list of sources), the folksong collections of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Bartók-and Kodály-Systems) and the earlier researchers of the author concerning Kodály’s collection. The collection is an important document of Hungarian folk music history and the history of research. It is also the only collection of the series initiated by the Centre for Music History that was ready for the press as the next volume after Bernhard Paumgartner’s 100 deutsche Soldatenlieder published in 1918.

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Political liberalisation in Jordan was launched as a regime survival strategy in 1989 by the late King Hussein. In spite of his efforts, 18 years later the Jordanian monarchy is considered as a semi-authoritarian system. This article explores the prospects for further political liberalisation under King Abdullah II, whose vision on the development of Jordan is full of enthusiasm. The author argues that Jordan is one of the most-advanced countries in the region in terms of political reform, but it has performed poorly in comparison to other developing states. King Abdullah promotes the “Jordan model” in order to win the support of the international audience: Western-oriented foreign policy, economic liberalisation allowing multinational companies to invest in Jordan, launching the Ministry of Political Development, and holding general elections in 2003. Political developments in Jordan echoed with the so-called “developmental state” paradigm, prioritising economic reform first, while postponing political transformation. National elections are expected to be held at the end of this year under a controversial election law. The recently passed political parties law is a proof of a de-liberalising monarchy, which is trying to preserve the loyalty of independent candidates, while marginalising the role of political parties. This paper deals with the external and the internal factors of political liberalisation in Jordan.

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This paper claims that language is part a culture, and the linguistic behaviour of the individual and the community is one of the forms of cultural behaviour. Analyzing this behaviour, the author demonstrates the symbolic function of language in bilingual and multilingual communities and societies. This symbolic role is discussed in this paper in two aspects: 1. in everyday communication and its manifestations in the literary tradition (English–French double linguistic functions in Charlotte Brontë’s novels as well as in Krleža’s and Kukučín’s works in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), 2. illustrating the symmetrical and asymmetrical linguistic forms of minority folk culture (Slovaks living in Hungary and Hungarians living in Transylvania and Romania).

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This paper examines the changes that took place in the image of the Ottoman Turks in Hungary during the 19th century. Though the Ottoman attacks in the 15th and 16th centuries destroyed the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and the following 150 years of the Ottoman rule in Hungary had considerable negative consequences, by the end of the 19th century negative sentiments regarding the Turks shifted, and during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 there were enthusiastic pro-Turkish demonstrations in Budapest. The paper analyses the causes of this turn in Hungarian historical thinking and demonstrates, e.g. through the themes of the most popular historical paintings of the 19th century, that more recent anti-Habsburg and anti-Russian sentiments among the Hungarians led to active support for the Turks, if only in a peaceful way, since the foreign policy of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy remained neutral.

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This study is about how Transylvania, the multiethnic region that was once part of the Hungarian Kingdom and later the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy and which since 1920 has been part of Romania, was rediscovered by Hungarians over the past twenty years. More precisely, it examines what the Transylvania that citizens of Hungary discovered and created was like in Hobsbawm’s sense of the invention of traditions. The theoretical focus of my analysis is the symbolic construction of places through discourses and performative acts of identification and occupation. My primary claim is that the restoration of a territorial approach to the nation, a national re-territorialization, is taking place in rediscovered Transylvania, accompanied by a new discourse of national authenticity.

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At the beginning of the 7th century B.C., the Lydian political system and the religious life underwent a great transformation. The charges of a military and a cultic functionary working in the epoch of the Heraclidae disappeared, and a kind of centralised monarchy (named by the Greeks tyrannis) was introduced by the founder of the Mermnadae dynasty. The god Candaulas worshipped by the Heraclidae has lost his importance, and the cult of Artimuš was preferred by the Mermnadae. It is problematic whether Candaulas (*Kantawla-) has anything to do with dog or dog-sacrifice, which was at home rather in Caria. Candaulas was, as Hipponax says, the Lydian “Hermes”, whose cult could be very popular in West Anatolia at a certain stage of the economic and social development.

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Summary The paper discusses the political views of János Asbóth, an outstanding representative of the nineteenth-century Hungarian Conservatism, explained in his various works. Asbóth's Conservatism cannot be characterized by Friedrich A. Hayek's terms as 'fear of change' or 'fondness for authority'; it rather shows similarity to Edmund Burke's attitude. Asbóth clearly considered progress the task of the human race, but he wanted progress to be continuous and organic. He might be regarded as a disillusioned Liberal too, since his Conservatism seemed to be based on the criticism of Liberalism, which he did not think could cope with the challenge of Socialism. On the other hand, he thought that Conservatism was more flexible an ideology, since it started from given circumstances and focused on the needs of the state and its citizens, while Liberals started from principles, which involved certain goals. The paper also discusses Asbóth's criticism of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the relations between political and cultural Conservatism.

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Abstract

Croatia is a country which had throughout the centuries experienced turbulent political life. It is situated at the crossroads of different cultural and artistic influences and, moreover, the point at which the Mediterranean meets Central Europe and closest to the places were East penetrates furthest into the West. As far as the stylistic influences and the reception of style are concerned, the 18th century art in Northern Croatia in most of its aspects corresponds to the features of Central European late Baroque art. This is mostly due to the fact that at that time Croatia was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, which by its widely extended borders provided a vast frame for the various artists who traveled around, or carried out various commissions of artworks throughout that extensive empire.

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The article is about the work of Joseph Hatzinger, son of builder Paul (Pál) Hatzinger from Székesfehérvár (Hungary), and Joseph’s sons Heinrich and Paul. Joseph worked in Osijek and in Slavonia in the second half of the eighteenth century. In the early nineteenth century, his older son Heinrich spent almost a decade as a professor at the Genie-Akademie (Military Academy of Engineering) in Vienna and designed two important Early Neoclassical churches at Terezin and Josefov fortresses in Bohemia. His younger son Paul, after a brief period as a lecturer at the Genie-Akademie, worked as an engineer in various parts of the Habsburg Monarchy during the first half of the nineteenth century, from Galicia, across Dalmatia, to Vienna and Lower Austria in the final phase of his career. Finally, his great-great-grandson Gusztáv Kasper, the grandson of Paul Hatzinger Jr, became a Hungarian railway engineer at the turn of the twentieth century.

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“Green merry-making”. The creation of recreational spaces around urban areas in the Habsburg Monarchy in the 18 th19 th centuries. — My investigation is focused on a special phenomenon of urbanisation of the way of life in the 18th to 19th centuries: the functional and symbolical transformation of the immediate environs of the town, in the course of which the previously unconquered surrounding countryside or land used for agricultural purposes became the venue for urban leisure customs (excursions, May Day festivities, summer holidays). The period covered in the research is from the last third of the 18th century to the mid-19th century: this is sufficiently long to allow a comparison of areas of investigation having different source bases (towns within the Habsburg Monarchy of different sizes and with different traditions) and to trace changes in the various urbanisation phenomena examined.Nature in the urban environs as a recreational space is interpreted according to the aesthetic requirements of urban-dwellers. These nearby excursion places can be seen not only as compensation for increasingly unpleasant urban life, but also as a kind of cultural pattern, a symbolic expression of urbanity: the big city lifestyle pattern also appears in the smaller, barely urbanised towns. The phenomenon examined appears with differing emphasis in the leisure time of the different social groups. The petty bourgeoisie and the poorer social groups are encountered in these micro spaces mainly in connection with festive use, while visits to the green areas in and around the town are practically an everyday practice among the middle classes. Certain traditions dating from the period before the urbanisation in the Modern Age — such as church fetes in the vicinity of towns, and student traditions — play an important role in the emergence of the new customs. In addition, the social composition of the individual towns, the nature of their trend-setting strata, the denominational tradition, the existing educational or other institutions, in short the differing urbanisation histories also had a substantial influence in shaping leisure spaces in the urban environs. Where an important Protestant school operates in a town, middle-class townsfolk, intellectuals and officials are found in considerable numbers and if the urban elite and leaders are supporters of innovation, green leisure spaces appear earlier and in greater number. In towns with a strong Catholic tradition, the profanization of green fetes also contributes to leisure use of the urban environs, but at times Catholic customs can also be found in a Protestant environment.

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