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It is a commonly held view that the Bellum Gallicum was a tool of Caesar’s political propaganda, with which he wanted to win the public opinion in Rome. The paper aims to argue against this, since he probably did not even publish it himself but considered it only as a basis for a future rhetorical revision by a historiographer. The text we have is thus presumably an anonymous edition.

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The building history of the Armory House in Buda Castle is here studied as an expression of the Habsburg's imperial and military power. The first building (1686–1696) was a simple one. The second one, built after the destruction of the first by a fire in 1723 was planned 1725/30 according to the plans of the architects of the Military Council of Vienna in the service of the imperial monumental propaganda of Emperor Charles VI. (King Charles III. of Hungary). This building was demolished in 1897/1901.

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The article deals with art patronage of the bishops of Olomouc around 1600 and concentrates on meaning and functional aspects of bishops' artistic commissions. As the most important exponents of Catholicism the bishops tried to strengthen Catholic confession and religious life in the diocese and their artistic patronage played, besides another concrete political activities, a truly important role in the politics of confessionalization of the Catholic elite in Early Modern Bohemia and Moravia. Their artistic commissions (not only architecture, painting and sculpture, but also prints, books, pieces of music, art and crafts etc.) served as means of religious propaganda and polemic.

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Rather than seeking Strzygowski's intellectual parentage in his methodology or archaeology, this paper explores another way in which he has shaped the scholarship of subsequent generations. His work Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa (1918) furnished an archaeological and critical basis for the study of Armenian architecture. According to him, the basilica was the product of Mediterranean “power-men” or Machtmenschen, a decadent and tyrannical people who deployed it as a means of propaganda or Machtkunst to subjugate the Aryans. Strzygowski's Armenian theories were based on an imaginative chronology which assigned the origin of the Armenian dome to the fourth century.

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Sign stones and Ivo chapels. Helping saints against unlawful court procedures and their traces in Austria. It is a basic existential behaviour that in seemingly hopeless life situations people turn to the means of faith, to persons who have been proclaimed saints or blessed. The article presents rarely mentioned saints to whom people turn in trouble, and their cult in Austria. Saints who helped in hopeless litigation, intervening in cases of debt settlement, providing evidence in inheritance proceedings involving property bequeathed to the church, and in legal disputes of the poor. However, the legends of the saints concerned and the motifs found in them often point beyond the difficult situations of individuals; propaganda for the church’s demand for property, justice and defence of the poor also appears in them.

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In 1903, in the periodical Történelmi Tár [Historical Repository], Henrik Kretschmayr published a Latin satirical poem on John Zápolya by an anonymous author, written according to him in 1527. In spite of the fact that the poem has been known for more than a century, it has evaded the attention of researchers, although it is a noteworthy piece for several reasons. It is a perfect example of anti-Zápolya propaganda, outstanding among such writings in that the author had accomplished a bravoure of style by the parallel application of imitatio and aemulatio, that are characteristic of neo-Latin poetry, when paraphrasing carmen 29, one of Catullus’ most powerful invectives.

Therefore, it is not a simple satirical poem, but a text operating at various levels and capable of addressing several layers of audience. By naming the accusations against Zápolya, also known from contemporaneous pamphlets, it functions as a piece of propaganda, however, by the artful imitation of Catullus, it can also address more educated readers, who may have delighted themselves in the recognition of the allusions.

Although several poets in Habsburg service could be candidates for the authorship, it is clear that the poem was written by the Silesian poet Georg von Logau (Georgius Logus), whose volume published in 1529 includes not only this, but also other poems imitating Catullus, and even follows the ancient author in its composition. This cannot be unrelated to the fact that during his studies in Rome, Logus was the student of Pierio Valeriano, who was the first to discuss Catullus’ poetry in the form of regular university lectures.

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Małgorzata Tryuk

On Ethics and Interpreters

Across Languages and Cultures
Author: Nijolė Maskaliūnienė

Communication Vol. 16 . No 2 . 197 – 222 . Effinghausen , H. 2017 . Zwischen Neutralität und Propaganda – Spanish-Dolmetscher im Nationalsozialismus . Berlin

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The imposition of socialist realism caused great loss of prestige and intellectual confusion in Hungarian architecture. After 1956, in the first years of the Kádár era it was preoccupied by a sort of “self-rehabilitation” and by the related aim of reviving Hungarian modernism. In this period of search the new architectural phenomena in industrial investments attracting the attention of designers and architecture theoreticians active in other areas of architecture assumed special significance.

Under the industrializing programs central to the party propaganda, there was clear-cut political intention for a long time to build materially and technically good-quality, well-designed, monumental industrial building complexes. Architectural creativity received a great boost from the efforts to create structural systems in view of the western engineering innovations and tendencies of form, adapted flexibly to the specificities of the industrializing program launched in the late 1950s, to the new technological systems and the transforming conditions of the building industry and economy.

It is not accidental therefore that a certain nimbus evolved soon around the central institution of the field, the Industrial Building Design Company (IPARTERV): the company gradually became a special creative workshop, and industrial architectural planning became a booming branch of the economy. The reception of the IPARTERV activity in the early Kádár era was dominated by the emergence of this nimbus. The aim of the paper is to explore the decisive architectural and engineering approaches, personal and collective planning roles, architectural theoretical tendencies and political factors that shaped the specific role of this company.

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It is a well-known fact that Theodore Roosevelt was and still is one of the most popular presidents of the United States. It is also somewhat known that he had a relatively brief, and relatively good relationship with Count Albert Apponyi, one of the most influential politicians of Hungary in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Perhaps a somewhat lesser known fact is that Roosevelt visited Hungary in 1910. As part of a European tour in the spring of that year, Theodore Roosevelt spent three days in Hungary. The courtesy visit was made into a huge and significant- looking event in Hungary behind which there were certain wishes, bitterness, and propaganda aims on the part of the Hungarian political leadership. Hungary hoped by the virtue of the ex-President’s visit to prove the country’s equal standing with Austria within the Dual Monarchy. Furthermore, the well-educated Roosevelt knew exactly what his hosts wanted to hear and, accordingly, although inadvertently, he kindled the flames of Hungarian independence, a concept with which he did not agree. The paper wishes to tell the story of Theodore Roosevelt’s short stay in Hungary as well as the importance, and lack of consequences, of such a visit.

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According to the official propaganda Aeneas was one of the most important figures in the mythical-historical past of Rome. However, we hardly meet his figure in the Fasti : he is usually presented as rescuing the gods of Troy, the Penates. As opposed to Aeneas, the Arcadian Euander is presented with the function of even replacing him in many respects. Euander, as Aeneas, appears in few stories, nevertheless, his figure is characterised with such sympathy and the foundation of such significant cults is attributed to him that he becomes superior to Aeneas in the text. Numa Pompilius emerges as an alternative to Romulus in the Fasti . Augustus intended to represent the values symbolised by both Romulus and Numa, however, in the Fasti , his figure is rather connected with the poet and with the ideal ruler of his imagination than with the princeps personally. It is striking that although Augustus tried to present also Numa as his forerunner, we cannot find this idea in the Fasti .

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