Stray neutron distribution in a medical cyclotron vault room was evaluated by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutrons
were generated in the production of radioactive nuclides, such as 18F, 11C, 13N and 15O, for diagnostic usage. Indium foil was adopted to evaluate the stray fast and thermal neutron intensity based on 115In(nf, n′)115mIn and 115In(nth, γ)116m1In reactions, respectively. The indium foils were weighed, sealed and placed at 62 points around the 6.7×8.2 m2 cyclotron room. Additionally, each indium foil was exposed for over 80 minutes during cyclotron operation and γ-peaks were
analyzed using an HPGe detector to evaluate the number of stray fast (Φf) or thermal (Φth) neutrons. The minimum to maximum numbers of fast and thermal neutrons were (3.47±0.11)×103 to (1.06±0.21)×104 n·cm−2·s−1 and 9 to 965 n·cm−2·s−1, respectively. The minimum detectable limit for stray neutrons was included herein to demonstrate the reliability. Accordingly,
60 and two points, respectively, the confidence level associated with the reported intensities of fast and thermal neutrons
reached 95%. The low qualified ratio in the evaluation of stray thermal neutrons might have been caused by either the high
Compton scattering plateau or the low intensity of the gamma-ray peak in the relevant spectrum.
Authors:Géza Szendrei, Péter Kovács-Pálffy, Mária Földvári, and Kamilla Gál-Sólymos
There is little data on the mineralogy of carbonate pedofeatures in the calcareous soils in Hungary which belong to the European prairie ecodivision. The aim of the present study is to enrich these data.
The mineralogical composition of the carbonate pedofeatures from characteristic profiles of the calcareous soils in Hungary was studied by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis, SEM combined with microanalysis, and stable isotope determination.
Regarding carbonate minerals only aragonite, calcite (+ magnesian calcite) and dolomite (+proto-dolomite) were identified in carbonate grains, skeletons and pedofeatures.
The values relating, respectively, to stable isotope compositions (C13, O18) of carbonates in chernozems and in salt-affected soils were in the same range as those for recent soils (latter data reported earlier). There were no considerable differences between the values for the carbonate nodules and tubules from the same horizons, nor were there significant variations between the values of the same pedofeatures from different horizons (BC-C) of the same profile. Thus it can be assumed that there were no considerable changes in conditions of formation.
Tendencies were recognized in the changes of (i) carbonate mineral associations, (ii) the MgCO3 content of calcites, (iii) the corrected decomposition temperatures, and (iv) the activation energies of carbonate thermal decompositions among the various substance-regimes of soils.
Differences were found in substance-regimes types of soils rather than in soil types.
Authors:Mohamed A. Zayed, M. F. Hawash, M. A. Fahmey, and Ali M. M. El-Gizouli
enantiomers obtained in MS/MS mode
The signal that appears at m/z = 206 (RI = 32.8%) refers to the appearance of the molecular ion [C13 H 18 O 2 ] + . The moderate intensity reflects the stability of the molecular
Authors:Mohammad Naderianfar, Majid Azizi, and Shapour Koohestani
MM . 2005 . Impact of Deficit Irrigation on Water Use Efficiency and Carbon Isotope Composition (Delta C-13) . of Field-Grown Grapevines under Mediterranean Climate . Journal of Experimental Botany 56 : 2163 – 2172 .