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Kersbergen, K. v. — Waarden, F. v. (2004): Politics and the Transformation of Governance. Issues of Legitimacy, Accountability, and Governance in Political Science. European Journal of Political Research 43: 143

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Abstract

Wall calendars had become an important part of regal representation by the end of the 17th century. The French monarchs, German ecclesiastic and secular prince-electors, and councils of imperial cities ordered wall calendars, mainly from famous Augsburg engravers, decorated with important events and successes of the previous year. The three wall calendars of Leopold I that have survived in the Berlin leaflet collection are impressive representations of the important period shifts in Leopold I's regal representation. The first calendar was made for the year 1661. The print shows the imperial predecessors of Leopold I, stressing his legitimacy by demonstrating how important emperors of the Holy Roman Empire came from the house of Habsburg. The wall calendar is an organic part of the peculiar propaganda campaign that emerged in connection with the 1658 election of Leopold I as emperor and in which the prince-electors emphasised their political predominance within the Holy Roman Empire. The second calendar sheet was made for the year 1686, calling attention to the great successes achieved in the anti-Turk war during 1685, putting the emperor's person in the centre. The emperor occurs in the characteristic accessories of the court as a victorious Roman war-lord and emperor. Although the victories of Venice over the Turks were also recorded on the print, Leopold is represented as the victor of the holy was against the Turks, suggesting the divine origin of the victories. The third sheet is a summary of Emperor Leopold's reign, as it was made for the year following his death, 1706. In this print of 50 small emblems, Emperor Leopold figures against Louis XIV as “the other sun” in Europe's sky. This propaganda publication, made probably with the Jesuits' cooperation, represents the Habsburg Empire as the most important European power, the victor in the Habsburg–French conflict that spanned the time of Leopold's reign. The Augsburg-made print attests not only to the state-theoretical erudition and high-quality political learning of its makers but also to their profound knowledge of the natural sciences and their receptivity to scientific innovations.

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A helyi népszavazás a helyi demokrácia olyan intézménye, mely többféle funkciót is betölthet a helyi politikai életben: lehetőséget biztosít a lakossági participációra, konfliktusok feloldásának eszköze lehet, növelheti a testület döntéseinek legitimációját. Tanulmányomban arra a kérdésre keresem a választ, változott-e a helyi népszavazások szerepe, funkciója a rendszerváltás óta; különösen az elmúlt 10 évben. A bekövetkezett társadalmi változások hatására nőtt-e a tematikai és funkcionális sokszínűség? Növekedett-e a lakossági participáció, sikeresebbé váltak-e a szervezetek az állampolgárok mobilizálásában? Alapul véve az 1999–2001 helyi népszavazásaira vonatkozó kutatás adatait és következtetéseit, azt a 2007–2009 közötti időszak elemzésével egészítettem ki a választási adatbázis és sajtóforrások segítségével. A helyi népszavazások tárgya öt fő téma körül összpontosult: ezeket területszervezési, beruházási, környezetvédelmi, szociális, illetve politikai-szimbolikus névvel illettem. A lakosság, illetve a különböző szervezetek által kezdeményezett népszavazások a legtöbb esetben tiltakozó funkciót töltenek be, míg az önkormányzat által kezdeményezett népszavazások célja a (már meghozott vagy meghozandó) döntések legitimálása. A konfliktus során a lakosság és az önkormányzat a legtöbbször egymással szemben álló szerepet vett fel. A helyi népszavazás a képviseleti demokrácia kiegészítőjeként, annak korrekciós mechanizmusaként működik a helyi politika színpadán, e szerepköre az elmúlt tíz évben változatlan maradt.

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Summary As citation practices strongly depend on fields, field normalisation is recognised as necessary for fair comparison of figures in bibliometrics and evaluation studies. However fields may be defined at various levels, from small research areas to broad academic disciplines, and thus normalisation values are expected to vary. The aim of this project was to test the stability of citation ratings of articles as the level of observation - hence the basis of normalisation - changes. A conventional classification of science based on ISI subject categories and their aggregates at various scales was used, namely at five levels: all science, large academic discipline, sub-discipline, speciality and journal. Among various normalisation methods, we selected a simple ranking method (quantiles), based on the citation score of the article in each particular aggregate (journal, speciality, etc.) it belonged to at each level. The study was conducted on articles in the full SCI range, for publication year 1998 with a four-year citation window. Stability is measured in three ways: overall comparison of article rankings; individual trajectory of articles; survival of the top-cited class across levels. Overall rank correlations on the observed empirical structure are benchmarked against two fictitious sets that keep the same embedded structure of articles but reassign citation scores either in a totally ordered or in a totally random distribution. These sets act respectively as a 'worst case' and 'best case' for the stability of citation ratings. The results show that: (a) the average citation rankings of articles substantially change with the level of observation (b) observation at the journal level is very particular, and the results differ greatly in all test circumstances from all the other levels of observation (c) the lack of cross-scale stability is confirmed when looking at the distribution of individual trajectories of articles across the levels; (d) when considering the top-cited fractions, a standard measure of excellence, it is found that the contents of the 'top-cited' set is completely dependent on the level of observation. The instability of impact measures should not be interpreted in terms of lack of robustness but rather as the co-existence of various perspectives each having their own form of legitimacy. A follow-up study will focus on the micro levels of observation and will be based on a structure built around bibliometric groupings rather than conventional groupings based on ISI subject categories.

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. Tyler 1997 The psychology of legitimacy Personality and Social Psychology Review 1 323 344

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): Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy . American Political Science Review , 53 ( 1 ): 69 – 105 . Lu , X. – Lorentzen , P. ( 2016

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. május 4.) Giddens, Anthony (1995): Szociológia. Osiris, Budapest. Headey, B.–Andorka, R.–Krause, P. (1995): Political legitimacy versus economic imperatives in system transformation: Hungary and

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Venture Growth by Building Legitimacy . Academy of Management Review 27 ( 3 ): 414 – 431 .

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Minorities) Rátkai, Árpád (2000): A kisebbségi önkormányzatok legitimációhiánya. [Lack of Legitimacy of Minority Self-Governments], Regio , 11 (3): 113

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Birtalan, Á. (2002a): An Oirat Ethnogenetic Myth in Written and Oral Traditions (A Case of Oirat Legitimacy). AOH 55, pp. 69–88. Birtalan An Oirat Ethnogenetic Myth in Written and Oral

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