Authors:Francesca Ceci and Aleksandra Krauze-Kołodziej
The myth of Orpheus experienced a great popularity in ancient world, covering the path from a mythical legend to a complex and sophisticated mystic cult. There were many various features of Orpheus that characterized the Thracian singer, being the result of his different adventures: from the quest of the Argonauts and the pathetic story of love of Eurydice, to his journey to the underworld.
The myth of Orpheus was highly represented in iconography. The most frequent representations are those showing Orpheus as a singer surrounded by the beasts and, in smaller amount, in the scene representing the story of descent to the underworld in search of Eurydice. Numerous images connected with the legend of Orpheus, dating from the Classical times to Christian era, are the proof of a wide influence of the mystery cult of Orpheus on ancient and late antique culture.
This paper aims to present an overview of ancient coinage iconography representing Orpheus. Various motives considering the story of Orpheus appear on one of the most powerful means of propaganda – the coins, particularly from the Roman provinces, that were easily able to reach a wide audience. In the limited space of coins, the engravers could highlight effectively the most important and popular events from the story of Orpheus.
the appearance of margarines and spreads on the market, they have been serious
competitors with butter. One of the reasons for this was the false nutritional
propaganda, but today butterfat has scientifically regained its actual nutritional
evaluation. The main disadvantage of butter in comparison to other spreadable
tallow is that it does not immediately spread as well when taken out of the
refrigerator. One method of obtaining better cold-spreadability is appropriate
cream ripening in which a different system known as the corpuscular colloid
Recent examinations were conducted during the winter,
when the problem of spreadability of butter is the greatest. Simple cold ripening
in accordance with the method used in our earlier EPR studies ripened the
cream, and by heat-step ripening, then butter was produced from these materials.
By deconvolutional analysis of the DSC curves it was established that butter
made from the cream ripened by the heat-step method had three characteristic
melting peaks as distinct from the two melting peaks of butter made from cold-ripened
cream, and the temperature of the second melting peak for butter from heat-step
cream was identical to the characteristic melting temperature for fat particles
from earlier EPR spectroscope assays. In sum it can be stated that the DSC
method clearly shows both the homogeneous and the particle structure characteristic
Második világháború utáni építészetünk építészettörténeti értékelése mind ez idáig kevéssé foglalkozott a templomépítészet kérdéskörével. Ennek teljes emlékanyagot átfogó értékelése még nem történt meg, alapvetően vázlatát sem adta meg még kritikai építészettörténet-írásunk. Nem meglepő mindez, hiszen összegző megállapításként kezelt axióma: az 1948-at követő politikai fordulat után 40 évig nem lehetett templomot építeni, a kivételesnek tekinthető esetek pedig legfőképp politikai propaganda céllal jöttek létre. Ezt a vélekedést már a rendszerváltás környékén megindult társadalomtudományi és egyháztörténeti kutatások megkérdőjelezték, de az utóbbi negyedszázad építészettörténeti kutatásai még csak részleteiben írták felül. Stíluskritikai értékelésen alapuló átfogó kutatás a témában még nem történt.
Hazai építészetünk második világháborút követő változásait alapvetően a modern építészet folytonossága mentén szokásos vizsgálni — ez a módszer követhető a két világháború között kibontakozó progresszív modern templomépítészet hatásaként is a vizsgált időszakban. Az alkotói megközelítés értékelésére hangsúlyt helyező kutatásunk a stíluskritikai értékelésekkel kibővülve jóval összetettebb és árnyaltabb képet nyújt: nemcsak a modern továbbélését, hanem a tradicionális stílusirányzatok mentén megjelenő, szintézist biztosító folyamatokat is elhelyezi az építészettörténet értékrendszerében. A második világháborút követő gyors politikai és társadalmi változások által létrejött, alapvetően egyházellenes közeggel jellemezhető mintegy 40 évből jelen tanulmány keretei között a legdinamikusabbnak jellemezhető első két évtizedet vizsgáljuk. Az 1945–1964 közötti időszak hazai templomépítészetének értékelése egy tendenciáiban jól körülhatárolható korszakot fog mutatni számunkra. Ennek természetesnek tűnő belső fordulópontja az 1956-os forradalmat követő politikai-társadalmi változás, de az egyházak ügye és a vallásosság kérdésköre csak egy évtizeddel később kerül nyugvópontra. A stíluskritikailag meghatározható határvonal hazai templomépítészetünkben is fordulatot hoz — építészalkotói megközelítésű elemzéssel bizonyítjuk e korszakhatár felállításának létjogosultságát, melyet építészeti tipológiai vázlatunk is alátámaszt a teljes emlékanyagot átfogó tanulmányunkban.
The focal point of the text is the historical and cultural perspective on the Sixties in Poland. The decade in arts is diagnosed as not isolated from its context, therefore the Sixties, which have been forced in between the seemingly coherent decades of the Fifties and the Seventies — ‘official’ and ‘unofficial’ art — are reinstated into their own context — the Sixties. Thus the text approaches the art created during the decade from a historical viewpoint, offering analysis of works of art connected with social and political phenomenon such as the Vietnam War, the death of Ernesto Che Guevara, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Cold War, nuclear warfare, moon landing, etc — threads that run parallel in all domains of culture.
The argument is constituted from some alternative caesurae of the decade — between the competition for the Auschwitz monument in 1958 and the antisemitic purge initiated by the infamous speech of Gomułka delivered in March of 1968. Caesura seized by the discourse on the reappropriation of realism — taken over by the official propaganda of the totalitarian regime — seems to be established with two paintings — And the Queue Goes on by Andrzej Wróblewski from 1956 and And the Queue Still Goes on (for Andrzej Wróblewski) by Zbylut Grzywacz from 1973. The attempt of Polish artists to regain access to realism and/as the language of proletariat appears as crucial for understanding the culture of the Sixties as the ‘unfulfilled love on the grounds of the agricultural circle’ — as the decade reveals both its connection points and footholds with the sociopolitical reality — its visual and language patterns.
Herpay , Balázs n.d.: Tokaj-Hegyalja. In: Nádasdi , János (ed.): Magyar szőlő- és borgazdaság [Hungarian Viticulture and Wine-making]. Budapest: Idegenforgalmi, Propaganda és Kiadó Vállalat.
Komáromy , Sándor 1998: 50 years
There is a type in the iconography of Saint Stephen which, although it is perhaps one of the best known portrayals of the saint, has nevertheless escaped the attention of art historical research. The woodcut in the Augsburg edition of János Thuróczy's Chronica Hungarorum (1488) is of interest not only from the viewpoint of art history; it is at least as important for the history of ideas and constitutional law, and it was not only in one particular period, namely at the very end of the 15th century that it became a special theme, but it proved to be very much alive in the following century with minor changes. The Hungarian source of the composition is a special theme that appeared in the 14th century, the portrayal of Saint Ladislas crowned by angels which was revived by the art propaganda for display of Louis I (the Great), based on Byzantine traditions and given current relevance. As far as we know at present, the motif of angelic coronation first appeared in the iconography of Saint Stephen on a woodcut printed perhaps in Ulm around 1460-1470. However, the immediate model for the woodcuts in the Thuróczy chronicle was very probably not this image of Saint Stephen but the relief of King Matthias Corvinus on the tower of the Ortenburg castle in Bautzen. Right from the time of its appearance the woodcut was an enormous success. This was due in part to its technique and message but the main reason why it became popular was its extremely important constitutional law implications for the feudal constitution, especially in the struggles for succession following the death of Matthias Corvinus (1490). Since it gave the most succinct expression of the doctrine of the Holy Crown, the constitutional law foundation of the Kingdom of Hungary, and could be updated later too, countless copies and variants were produced in the following centuries, particularly after the appearance in Nuremberg in 1664 of the Mausoleum published at the expense of Ferenc Nádasdy chief justice, right up to the 20th century. It was probably through this art channel that it trickled down later through further intermediary stations into folk tradition although there are only a few oral and pictorial traces of this.
In the 19th century the traditional diet of the Russians was a wholesome and stable complex of nutrition which included fast days set apart for partial or complete abstinence from food during a calendar year. Fast days were set by the regulations of the Orthodox Church and were linked with the major Christian feasts, church events and remembrance days of the Saints. In practice all days of the year were divided into the days of abstinence from meat and dairy products when vegetable food only was allowed (govenije - “fasting”), and the days when their use was not restricted (mjasoed - “time when it is allowed to eat meat”). To give a clear idea of the place fasting occupied in the life of the people it is enough to say that more than 200 out of the 365 calendar days, i.e., the greater part of the year, were set apart as fasting periods of one or many days. The food taken on fast days had both some general and locally specific features. The urban diet differed from the rural; festive food had its specifics compared to the daily diet; the nutrition of wealthy peasants was more diverse than that of the poor. The importance of fast days lay not only in their restricting the diet to certain sets of food products, they served also to consolidate the norms of morality, to foster positive qualities and the like. Fasting habits and customs were passed down from one generation to the next, and thus carried a great educational content. It is important to compare the practice of fasting in the 20th century during the atheistic propaganda and after 1988, the year of the millennium of Christianity in Russia. Thus the fasts can reveal the characteristics of the religious mood of Russian society in the past and the present. Thanks to a considerable mass of archival and field materials, as well as published sources, it is possible to demonstrate the great role of fast days in the life of the Russian people.