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hippokratischen Forschers aer. 24. 10 nachzuahmen – auf dem guten Weg. * Einen ganz herzlichen Dank schulde ich Oswald Panagl, der das Deutsche des vorliegenden Beitrags einer kritischen Durchsicht unterzogen hat. 1 VÄÄNÄNEN, V.: Le latin vulgaire des

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In his Latin translation of Plato's Letter VII 326b-c Leonardo Bruni used the already existing translation of the passage made by Cicero. The paper shows how the Florentine humanist treated the version of his master: he reproduced it with slight modifications caused by his desire for originality.

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In Early and Classical Latin, we encounter a rich and complex system in which prefixes are used to render verbs telic and to emphasise the beginning or end of a process or of an activity, and in which the opposition between non-dynamicity and dynamicity or between transitivity and intransitivity is expressed by various suffixes. In the perfect there is an opposition between non-dynamic unprefixed verbs and dynamic prefixed ones. In the later centuries this system breaks down, and there is a blurring of the semantic difference between the prefixed and unprefixed verbs and often also of that between the prefixes themselves. New verbs are formed to replace old verbs that have lost their old functions. These changes pervade the whole verbal system in Latin and affect the semantic relationship between the perfect and imperfect tenses. In Romance, the definite and indefinite articles express the functions previously expressed by the various actional forms.

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From 1091 onwards the nomadic confederacy of the Cumans had played an eminent historical role in the Balkans. The present paper investigates the Cuman participation in the fight of Byzantium with the Latins, during and after the Fourth Crusade in 1204, and comes to the conclusion that the Cumans' historical role in the restoration of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185-1186 and in the following events of the upcoming two decades is undeniable. The Cumans had no strategic aims, their primary and short-time goal being robbery and pillage. Though their employment in campaigns and battles as mercenaries was of prime importance for both the Vlakho-Bulgarians and the Byzantines and the Latins, they did not present a real long-term menace to the statehood of either of the waring factions.

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In this paper we introduce a novel block cipher based on the composition of abstract finite automata and Latin cubes. For information encryption and decryption the apparatus uses the same secret keys, which consist of key-automata based on composition of abstract finite automata such that the transition matrices of the component automata form Latin cubes. The aim of the paper is to show the essence of our algorithms not only for specialists working in compositions of abstract automata but also for all researchers interested in cryptosystems. Therefore, automata theoretical background of our results is not emphasized. The introduced cryptosystem is important also from a theoretical point of view, because it is the first fully functioning block cipher based on automata network.

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As a subsidiary project of the Novum Glossarium research programme the A Magyarországi Középkori Latinság Szótára [Lexicon of Mediaeval Latin in Hungary] was launched in 1934 and cooperation on it has been carried out by the UAI (Union Académique Internationale) and HAS (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, MTA) ever since. Printed editions of the project findings have been published since 1987. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae and Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch served as framework for the series, within which five regular and one supplement volumes have been published so far. These volumes comprise the dictionary entries from A—I, all of which are richly supplemented with illustrative quotations.

Our study contains entries whose illustrative quotations have been mostly collected in the past few years and have not been known before. The resulting entries either serve as new additions to the printed volumes or can complement entries lacking proper and comprehensive documentation and thus improve our knowledge of Latin vocabulary items used in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary.

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Abstract  

An analysis was made using databases at the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) in Philadelphia concerning the productivity in the field of engineering sciences in Chile, a developing country with a neoliberal economy which has mainstream articles related to the Latin American context. This paper also mentions policies and actions to be adopted in order to strengthen R&D activities to attain a higher scientific and technological progress.

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This paper claims the Central European language reform movements in the late 18th century and in the mid-19th century showed a number of similarities with regard to both their aims and their methods. Their main characteristic feature was the endeavour to purify the mother tongue and to introduce new words for elements of foreign (primarily Greek or Latin) specialized terminologies belonging to general education or serving at least as skills needed for orientation. This was a fundamental dilemma: to use Latin as the language of international cultural and academic relations or to give preference to mother tongues spoken by only certain language communities. Do the mother-tongue terms hinder the contacts with the international scientific world? An interesting solution of this dilemma based on some common ideas can be found in the works of Czech, Hungarian, and Croatian language reformers.

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The aim of this study is to examine and describe the official language use of the Roman Empire under Justinian I, focusing on the choice between Greek and Latin, the two traditional official languages of the empire. Comparing the practice under Justinian with that of the ages before resp. after Diocletian's accession (284), the conclusion can be drawn that Justinian reformed the official language use on purpose, following the practice of the principate.

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Plutarchos Bruta animalia ratione uti című eleven dialógusából három latin fordítás is készült a XV. század folyamán, melyek csak kéziratban maradtak fenn. Hogy a fordítások belső viszonyait felfedjük, a kézirati szövegek mélyreható elemzésére van szükség. Egy korábbi tanulmányunkban feldolgoztuk Giovanni Regio időben legkésőbbi fordítását (1488), kimutatva azokat a szálakat, amelyek elődje, a milánói Lampugnino Birago fordításához (1465–1470 körül) fűzik. Most a szicíliai Antonio Cassarino legkorábban készült fordításának (1440–1445 körül) a vizsgálatát kívánjuk elvégezni párhuzamosan utódja, Lampugnino Birago negyed évszázaddal későbbi fordításával, hogy összehasonlítsuk módszerüket és stíluseszközeiket. A két fordító megközelítése között lényeges különbség figyelhető meg. Míg Cassarino a humanista fordításeszményt követve „értelem szerinti” (ad sententiam) fordításra törekszik, addig Birago inkább a „szó szerinti” (ad verbum) fordítás követelményének tesz eleget. A fordításelmélet általános kérdései mellett tárgyaljuk a latin fordítások kézirati hagyományának, görög forrásszövegének, valamint szóhasználatának problémáját.

Plutarch’s lively dialogue Bruta animalia ratione uti was translated in the course of the 15th century by three different persons whose works are only extant in manuscripts. For establishing the connections between these translations a thorough study of the texts of the codices is needed. In a previous article, we have dealt with Giovanni Regio’s translation, which is the latest in time (1488), and found traces of the latter’s dependence from the translation of the Milanese Lampugnino Birago (c. 1465–1470). The aim of the present paper is to inquire into the text of the earliest translation by the Sicilian Antonio Cassarino (c. 1440–1445) in parallel with the text of Lampugnino Birago’s translation which followed it after two and a half decades. The different translation methods and devices used by the translators provide ample space for comparison. Whereas Cassarino’s approach is more in keeping with the humanist ideal of ‘translation by sense’ (ad sententiam), Birago as a rule follows a principle of ‘translation by word’ (ad verbum), keeping close to the letter. Beyond the questions of translation theory in general problems relating to the textual tradition of the Latin codices, the possible Greek sources of the translations, and a number of lexical matters are discussed.

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