Az egészségügyi (azon belül is az orvos–beteg) kommunikáció jogi vonatkozásait
tekinti át a cikk, különös tekintettel az orvos–beteg kapcsolat alakulására, a
tájékoztatás felelősségére, a nem kívánt események közlésére, a szükséges
nyilatkozatokra. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(17), 675–679.
Data obtained through letter poll over 143 researchers who authored the 240 highly cited documents (See the first phase of the study) were used to describe the informal aspects of communication between Chinese and non-Chinese superconductivity researchers. While non-Chinese researchers played both roles equally, Chinese scientists were the destination more often than they were the source in informal communication. Chinese scientists were less visible than their counterparts in the informal domain. The mapping of the informal communication activities among the superconductivity researchers shows that all Chinese scientists except Zhao ZX, a special liaison between the two groups of researchers, clustered away from their non-Chinese colleagues.
Authors:Péter Igaz, Zoltán Nagy, Barna Vásárhelyi, Edit Buzás, András Falus and Károly Rácz
A génexpresszió poszttranszkripciós szintű szabályozásában alapvető jelentőségű mikroRNS-ek jelenlétét nemcsak intracellulárisan, hanem testfolyadékokban is kimutatták. A keringő mikroRNS-ek hormonszerű hatásokat fejthetnek ki, aminek révén távoli sejteket is befolyásolhatnak, így az intercelluláris kommunikáció mediátorainak tekinthetők. A szérumban, vizeletben, székletben, nyálban előforduló mikroRNS-ek szóba jöhetnek betegségek biomarkereiként, és intenzív kutatások folynak ezek hasznosítására. Érdekes következtetésekre adhat okot, hogy az anyatej is tartalmaz mikroRNS-eket, és nem zárható ki ezek alapján, hogy ezek a csecsemőre hatva az epigenetikai információ egyének közötti áramlását tehetik lehetővé. Még megdöbbentőbb az a nemrégiben született felismerés, hogy a táplálékban található mikroRNS-ek, így növényi mikroRNS-ek mutathatók ki a keringésben, és ezek az emberi/állati szervezetben is aktívak lehetnek. Mindezek alapján a mikroRNS-ek az egyének közötti, sőt fajok közötti génexpressziós/epigenetikai információáramlásban szerepet játszhatnak, ami a mikroRNS-ek jelentőségét és talán az egész természet működéséről, a betegségek kialakulásáról alkotott felfogásunkat is alapvetően módosíthatja. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 1647–1650.
Authors:Glänzel Wolfgang, Thijs Bart and Schlemmer Balázs
The present paper analyses the role of author self-citations aiming at finding basic regularities of self-citations within the process of documented scientific communication and thus laying the methodological groundwork for a possible critical view at self-citation patterns in empirical studies at any level of aggregation. The study consists of three parts; the first part of the study is concerned with the comparative analysis of the ageing of self-citations and of non-self citations, in the second part the possible interdependence between self-citations and foreign citations is analysed and in the third part the interrelation of the share of self-citations in all citations with other citation-based indicators is studied. The outcomes of this study are two-fold; first, the results characterise author self-citations - at least at the macro level - as an organic part of the citation process obeying rules that can be measured and described with the help of mathematical models. Second, these rules can be used in evaluative micro and meso analyses to identify significant deviations from the reference standards.
Authors:Chuanfu Chen, Kai Sun, Gang Wu, Qiong Tang, Jian Qin, Kuei Chiu, Yushuang Fu, Xiaofang Wang and Jing Liu
The quality and credibility of Internet resources has been a concern in scholarly communication. This paper reports a quantitative
analysis of the use of Internet resources in journal articles and addresses the concerns for the use of Internet resources
scholarly journals articles. We collected the references listed in 35,698 articles from 14 journals published during 1996
to 2005, which resulted in 1,000,724 citations. The citation data was divided into two groups: traditional citations and Web
citations, and examined based on frequencies of occurrences by domain and type of Web citation sources. The findings included:
(1) The number of Web citations in the journals investigated had been increasing steadily, though the quantity was too small
to draw an inclusive conclusion on the data about their impact on scientific research; (2) A great disparity existed among
different disciplines in terms of using information on the Web. Applied disciplines and interdisciplinary sciences tended
to cite more information on the Web, while classical and experimental disciplines cited little of Web information; (3) The
frequency of citations was related to the reputation of the author or the institution issuing the information, and not to
the domain or webpage types; and (4) The researchers seemed to lack confidence in Internet resources, and Web information
was not as frequently cited as reported in some publications before. The paper also discusses the need for developing a guideline
system to evaluate Web resources regarding their authority and quality that lies in the core of credibility of Web information.
The science and engineering base is a key source of knowledge for the development and use of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs). In order to be able to effectively describe and monitor world-wide scientific activity related to ICTs,
it is important to be able to provide reliable macro-level statistics of this knowledge base. International bibliographic
databases and related bibliometric indicators together provide an analytical framework and appropriate measures to cover both
the ‘supply side’—research capabilities and outputs—and ‘demand side’—collaboration, diffusion and citation impact—related
to the ICT research. This paper presents results of such a bibliometric study describing macro-level features of this ICT
knowledge base. The data were retrieved from a specially developedCWTS ICT Database which provides a broad-scope world-wide coverage of ICT-relevant research papers published in high-quality international
scientific and technical journals. The cross-country comparison focuses on the level of scientific output and co-operation
patterns of the most actively publishing nations with a focus on the three Triad zones—the European Union, the USA and Japan.
Starting from a characterization of the level of internationalization of SCI journals, based on their authoring scope, the
process of internationalization of scientific communication throughout the period 1981–97 is described. The growth of the
classes of international journals at the expense of national-oriented ones, appears as a general trend in all disciplines.
A kindred measure of internationalization at the country-level is proposed, based on the balance of country-authored publications
between national-oriented and international-oriented journals. A typology of countries is sketched. The general trend towards
internationalization is also clear at the country level. It can be generally interpreted as a positive evolution, with some
exceptions as Russia in the recent period, where it appears together with the output decline, a counterpart of the disappearance
of many journals from SCI. Some other examples of shocks with a covariation of internationalization and output are given.
Country internationalization indexes also express the sensitivity of the country output indicators to the possible restriction
of SCI sample to the international fraction. Considering evolutions of internationalization may be helpful for a comprehensive
study of scientific long-term evolutions at the country level.
The importance of conferences, courses, workshops, and other kinds of scientific meetings is still growing, especially in highly dynamic or multidisciplinary fields of knowledge. Since these meetings are usually the first occasion of communicating scientific findings, it seems worthwhile to use data on conferences in order to depict trends in science and technology, at an early point of time. Nevertheless, only a few studies on these types of scientific and technological communication were undertaken until now. One prominent example for the relevance of conferences and for the necessity of some monitoring is the field of the new biotechnology. We followed a conference approach by using data on 4,674 meetings that took place in the time span 1984–90. Content analytic methods (a coding scheme of 70 categories) seemed to be appropriate, according to the textual type of data (information about the meetings, mostly programs). Distributions of categories show specific features and multiple correspondence analyses of concatenated Burt matrices of the categories, differentiated to the years provide a broad overview of biotechnological conferences and other types of meetings in the eighties. Connections between fields of knowledge and applications or certain characteristics of the meetings can be summarized in five clusters of features which are relatively stable within the time frame of investigation.