Several samples of native (untreated), mercerized prior to ammonia treatment and ammonia-treated Egyptian cotton fabric strips have been prepared. On these samples several measurements were carried out, including infrared and electronic absorption spectroscopy, temperature dependent DC electric conductivity measurements and -radiation exposure. Detailed accounts of the spectral properties and phase constitution of NH3-treated cotton celluloses were correlated with their electrical properties. Finally, the mechanism of electric conduction in NH3-treated Egyptian fabric strips was put forward and correlated for the first time with the spectral properties and phase constitution of cotton textiles.
Kants political and legal theory is now thought to be one of the most important contributions to the theory of modern constitutionalism. The paper is an attempt to distil the fundamental principles of constitutional law as implemented in modern constitutional review from the writings of Kant. It examines the idea of the constitution as a social contract and its relation to popular sovereignty. Second, the principles of “republican constitution”-liberty, equality and independence (autonomy)-follow. These principles condense the essence of what we now call fundamental constitutional rights. Third, the transcendental maxim of legislation, that is, the publicity is analysed; the principle of the publicity of legislation is (under various names like equality, public reasoning and discussion, freedom of speech) fundamental for modern constitutionalism (or neo-constitutionalism). Constitutional courts are organs of the “public use of reason” so important for Kant and revived recently by Rawls. The last section is a discussion of the relationship of morality and constitutional government. Kant regarded the law as a coercive order a precondition for moral autonomy but he did not qualifi ed constitutional principles “moral”. Thus, the Kantian interpretation of constitutionalism does not support the moral reading or interpretation of the constitution; instead, the principles of the “lawful” constitution are based (like the maxims of morality) on practical reason.
The taxon currently named P. officinalis subsp.
banatica has been treated as a subspecies of P. officinalis by most authors.
Recent genetic studies revealed that this taxon is an ancient allotetraploid
hybrid carrying the genes of P. mairei and the ancestor of P. officinalis.
Based on its current polyphyletic status, degree of genetic and morphological
divergence, its geographical distribution and unique genetic constitution I
argue that this viewpoint is incorrect, and this taxon should be recognised as an
On 8 January 2009, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin held a press conference on the recent gas crisis. The present paper discusses some of Putin’s linguistic devices that are used for discursive purposes, in particular “disclaimers”, the use of some keywords and of pronouns of the first person as well as the constitution of their role fields. Finally, some linguistic mistakes are analyzed, and elements of Putin’s populistic repertoire are described.
The aim of the paper is to show that the two testimonies on Andronicus' theory of physical change give a coherent picture. Both accounts stress that the factor responsible for change is not necessarily to be sought for outside of the things that change. Their change is due as much to their inner constitution as to external agents. Andronicus' view resembles Galen's critique of the Aristotelian position and there is a possibility that both authors drew on Stoic sources.
This contribution aims to examine how the Hungarian Constitution applies in private relations through judicial activity and how the anti-discrimination legislation influences this tendency. The current codification procedure of the new civil code calls for a thorough theoretical background in order to answer how its provisions relate to the Constitution. After the general overview of the practice of courts and the Constitutional Court, the criticism of scholars developed on the issue will shed light on the weaknesses, but in spite of them, the overall success of the theory of indirect horizontal effect. The paper will also deal with the horizontal effect of a specific constitutional right, namely the right to equal treatment. I examine the fairly new legal instrument, the act on the prohibition of certain forms of discrimination, and demonstrate how this new practice influences the idea of horizontal effect in constitutional law and what implications it has on the new Civil Code afoot. I argue that the act at first sight exists independently from the requirement of horizontal application of fundamental rights, but, in fact, it implicates the necessity to reconsider in its light how the Constitution applies in private relations.
The principal claim of the essay is that sentiments and assumptions about sentiments - have an important role in setting up constitutional designs and interpretation (“evolving standards of decency”); - constitutional arrangements do have impacts on social emotions; - the disregard of the interrelation of emotions and other forms of cognition condemns legal theory to one-sidedness and the efforts of behavioral economics seem not to undo this one-sidedness. For example, fear is present in the making of many constitutions. Constitutions are designed to give assurances against fear that stems from, among others, pre-constitutional oppression, mob rule and factional passions. Constitutional rights are also structured by emotions: Compassion and indignation serve as emotional grounds to accept and claim human rights. A simplified vision of modernity claims that law and constitutional design is all about rationality. Brain imaging studies indicate that moral emotions guide many moral judgments or are in competition with reasoning processes. Of course, moral emotions contribute to the shaping of law through moral judgments. To the extent law intends to shape behavior, it will rely on its legal folk psychology. A theory of constitutional sentiments shall reconstruct the assumptions on human nature as emotional nature that shape the constitution and its interpretation. Historically, constitutional path dependence presupposes emotional choices and emotional action tendencies that are institutionalized and 'imposed' on law and society. Paradigmatic changes in constitutional law cannot be explained without considering the path-breaking rule of emotions. For example, the commitment to abolish slavery cannot be explained without the emotional condemnation (based on disgust and resulting in indignation) of the institution. The ban on torture is also rooted in sentiments of disgust. Concepts of cruel and unusual punishment are rooted in emotions of disgust. Law is both trying to script emotions (in order to prevent challenges to the status quo) and accommodates prevailing (or preferred) emotions (hence the difficulty of a non-revenge based criminal policy).
This paper discusses problems related to the incorporation of constitutional rule of law into a pluralistic legal system, primarily in post-communist Hungary. Normative pluralism was characteristic of state socialism. Is this pluralism going to shape the emerging constitution-driven law of post-communism? The paper concludes that although constitutional universalism brought a new dimension to law and in principle has helped to promote the centrality of law in the competitive world of normative orderings, it may in the long run remain an elitist tool, fundamentally ignored or circumvented by sub-legal forms of social interaction.
The seasonal frequency of noctilucent clouds has been discussed on the basis of visual data from the Northern Hemisphere. It is shown that there is a strong dependence on the atmospheric constitution at the mesospheric level and the seasonal transition in the mesopause. Before spring transition and after autumn transition of the mesosphere at the 80 km level no NLC are observed on the Northern Hemisphere. Conversely we can conclude the same distribution for the Southern Hemisphere and the strong relation between transition periods and occurrence of NLC.
After the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 settled the question in the West whether or not the world exists from eternity, a new debate arose concerning the demonstrability of the temporal creation of the world. Thomas Aquinas, of course, also joined in the controversy, and while accepting on faith the constitution of the council, argued for the logical possibility of the eternity of the world. In doing so, he had to refute all the counter-arguments provided against the possibility of an eternally created world.