Let G be a finite group. Let p(G) denote the minimal degree of a faithful permutation representation ofG and let q(G) and c(G) denote the minimal degree of a faithful representation of G by quasi-permutation matrices over the rational and the complex numbers, respectively. Finally r(G) denotes the minimal degree of a faithful rational valued complex character of G. The purpose of this paper is to calculate p(G), q(G), c(G) and r(G) for the group SP(4,q).
The essay contextualizes the theory of culture of the philosopher, sociologist, novelist and intellectual Abdelkebir Khatibi
in theories of ‘Francophony’ and ‘Post-Coloniality’ which de Toro develops further, proposing a model about hybridity on the
basis of some central epistemologies as the “End of the Logos”, the “End of Meta-Discourses”, the “Decentration of the Subject”.
Hybridity is defined as “the emphasizing of the difference by simultaneous recognition of the difference of the other in a common territory that all
the time has to be inhabited all over again”. In order to avoid the terminological labyrinth related to the concept of hybridity, de Toro offers a first model for a classification
of the different levels on which hybridity can be thought and applied, and he distinguishes between eight different fields
or levels for locating hybridity: (1) Hybridity as a epistemological category or as a category of philosophy of sciences;
(2) as a theoretical/methodological category; (3) as a category of cultural theory, as the strategy to manage with different
cultural, ethnical and religious groups; (4) as transmedial category, the use of various media, systems of signs; (5) as an
urban category, as form and different types of organisation, plurality of products and heterogeneous objects, such as art,
city culture, architecture, companies, ecology, nature, societies, politics, life styles; (6) as territory of the body; (7)
as technology (natural sciences: i.e. molecular biology; medicine: micro artificial limbs, virtual surgery; industries: engines
with hybrid drive), and (8) as transtextuality. The second part of the essay offers a new concept of Francophony as an “espace
éclaté”, as a hybrid and fundamentally plural and anti-hierarchically cartography. The third part of the essay is dedicated
to Khatibi’s concepts of the pensée autre and the double critique as well of the corps, désir, androgynéité, migration et le bi-langue.
The first known drawings of machines can be found in warfare-themed manuscripts. The oldest of them dates back to the 14th century, but their proliferation took place in the 15th century. During the century an almost standardized drawing style, vocabulary was developed, which also survived throughout the Renaissance.
Compared to the relatively high number of the survived warfare-related manuscripts that included drawings (their number is above 50), the representation of machines for civil usage is very rare throughout the century, even though the architectural drawings also proliferated during this century, and they also introduced a distinct representation style.
The survived portfolio of the Strasbourg master builder Hans Hammer lies at the intersection of this two disciplines: it includes both machine and architectural drawings in a large number. Given the occupation of the master, it can safely assumed that in contrast to those found in the majority of the contemporary machine drawings, his machines served civil purposes.
In this article the following questions are discussed: how do Hans Hammer’s machine drawings fit in the corpus of the contemporary machine drawings both by drawing style and function; and with which manuscripts can a direct connection be made?
The Arcadian landscape was originally developed in Vergil to transcend an actual landscape and identify with an idealized setting temptingly abstract in order to serve as a metaphor for the redesigned pastoral genre as promoted in the Eclogues. Vergil’s Arcadia as described in Eclogue 4, for the first time in Latin literature, was a construction, a literary topos and a symbol of innovative poetics, but also of Roman history and contemporary politics interfused. Vergil’s Arcadia was an imaginary landscape. This utopia becomes — in full awareness of Vergil’s literary contemporaries and the poets following after them — an appropriate setting for the staging of imaginary literary dialogues between shepherds-poets, and the changing poetics is reflected on the changes of the archetypal landscape of the original Arcadia topography. These changes appear first in Tibullus (in selected passages from 1. 1, 1. 3, 1. 5, 1. 7, 1. 10, 2. 1, 2. 3 and 2. 5) and recur in new forms in Propertius, Horace and Ovid. The progress of transformation evidences Arcadia’s ability to observe the rules of different generic environments and anticipates the propagation of the particularly literary topos across the centuries, as a multi-leveled symbol of poetics, aesthetics and politics.