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Abstract  

Let G be a finite group. Let p(G) denote the minimal degree of a faithful permutation representation ofG and let q(G) and c(G) denote the minimal degree of a faithful representation of G by quasi-permutation matrices over the rational and the complex numbers, respectively. Finally r(G) denotes the minimal degree of a faithful rational valued complex character of G. The purpose of this paper is to calculate p(G), q(G), c(G) and r(G) for the group SP(4,q).

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Abstract  

The essay contextualizes the theory of culture of the philosopher, sociologist, novelist and intellectual Abdelkebir Khatibi in theories of ‘Francophony’ and ‘Post-Coloniality’ which de Toro develops further, proposing a model about hybridity on the basis of some central epistemologies as the “End of the Logos”, the “End of Meta-Discourses”, the “Decentration of the Subject”. Hybridity is defined as “the emphasizing of the difference by simultaneous recognition of the difference of the other in a common territory that all the time has to be inhabited all over again”. In order to avoid the terminological labyrinth related to the concept of hybridity, de Toro offers a first model for a classification of the different levels on which hybridity can be thought and applied, and he distinguishes between eight different fields or levels for locating hybridity: (1) Hybridity as a epistemological category or as a category of philosophy of sciences; (2) as a theoretical/methodological category; (3) as a category of cultural theory, as the strategy to manage with different cultural, ethnical and religious groups; (4) as transmedial category, the use of various media, systems of signs; (5) as an urban category, as form and different types of organisation, plurality of products and heterogeneous objects, such as art, city culture, architecture, companies, ecology, nature, societies, politics, life styles; (6) as territory of the body; (7) as technology (natural sciences: i.e. molecular biology; medicine: micro artificial limbs, virtual surgery; industries: engines with hybrid drive), and (8) as transtextuality. The second part of the essay offers a new concept of Francophony as an “espace éclaté”, as a hybrid and fundamentally plural and anti-hierarchically cartography. The third part of the essay is dedicated to Khatibi’s concepts of the pensée autre and the double critique as well of the corps, désir, androgynéité, migration et le bi-langue.

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The first known drawings of machines can be found in warfare-themed manuscripts. The oldest of them dates back to the 14th century, but their proliferation took place in the 15th century. During the century an almost standardized drawing style, vocabulary was developed, which also survived throughout the Renaissance.

Compared to the relatively high number of the survived warfare-related manuscripts that included drawings (their number is above 50), the representation of machines for civil usage is very rare throughout the century, even though the architectural drawings also proliferated during this century, and they also introduced a distinct representation style.

The survived portfolio of the Strasbourg master builder Hans Hammer lies at the intersection of this two disciplines: it includes both machine and architectural drawings in a large number. Given the occupation of the master, it can safely assumed that in contrast to those found in the majority of the contemporary machine drawings, his machines served civil purposes.

In this article the following questions are discussed: how do Hans Hammer’s machine drawings fit in the corpus of the contemporary machine drawings both by drawing style and function; and with which manuscripts can a direct connection be made?

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The range of violence comprises severe physical abuse and different methods of mental torture as well as social discrimination. Beside the traumas themselves, these acts also burden the victims with shame. Finnish writer Sofi Oksanen (born 1977) discusses these issues in her works. As a writer, Oksanen is very sensitive to social issues, discrimination and the unfairness of history. Most of her characters suffer from the shame of inferiority caused by physical or mental violence. Oksanen analyzes the influence of shame in our lives, and her characters demonstrate several different responses to the feeling.

Eyesight and our looks play an important role in recognizing or hiding the humiliating episodes of our past. Appearance often reflects all our inner struggles and represents our mental state, wherefore a given individual’s manner of personal care and habits of shaping the body reveal a great deal about the person. Personal and beauty care come up in different ways in Oksanen’s novels and have varying symbolic meanings, but they have at least one thing in common: they are related to creating a false identity, one which is more acceptable for those in the surrounding environment.

This paper analyzes the mechanism of shame connected to the feeling of inferiority, concentrating on four of Oksanen’s novels (Stalin’s Cows, Baby Jane, Purge and When the Doves Disappeared). Although violence can lead to mental disorders and the shame of inferiority also belongs to the domain of emotions, the paper focuses on the physical consequences of the victims’ mental state, which can vary from severe physical disorders to everyday personal grooming or beauty care.

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The Arcadian landscape was originally developed in Vergil to transcend an actual landscape and identify with an idealized setting temptingly abstract in order to serve as a metaphor for the redesigned pastoral genre as promoted in the Eclogues. Vergil’s Arcadia as described in Eclogue 4, for the first time in Latin literature, was a construction, a literary topos and a symbol of innovative poetics, but also of Roman history and contemporary politics interfused. Vergil’s Arcadia was an imaginary landscape. This utopia becomes — in full awareness of Vergil’s literary contemporaries and the poets following after them — an appropriate setting for the staging of imaginary literary dialogues between shepherds-poets, and the changing poetics is reflected on the changes of the archetypal landscape of the original Arcadia topography. These changes appear first in Tibullus (in selected passages from 1. 1, 1. 3, 1. 5, 1. 7, 1. 10, 2. 1, 2. 3 and 2. 5) and recur in new forms in Propertius, Horace and Ovid. The progress of transformation evidences Arcadia’s ability to observe the rules of different generic environments and anticipates the propagation of the particularly literary topos across the centuries, as a multi-leveled symbol of poetics, aesthetics and politics.

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