Authors:W. Knaepen, W. Bergwerf, P. Lancée, W. Van Dijk, J. Jansen, R. Janssen, W. Kiezenberg, R. Van Sluijs, M. Tijsmans, K. Volkers, and P. Voors
Gas and oil companies frequently encounter build up of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in their production and processing facilities. In the Netherlands NORM is subject to strict national regulations and, consequently, installations have to be screened on a regular basis. The availability of accurate and reliable NORM sampling and analysis techniques is therefore essential. A number of years ago, the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V. (NAM) actively initiated an investigation on analysis techniques for NORM samples from gas and oil companies. Within this framework, Shell Research Amsterdam organized a four-stage interlaboratory test programme in which representative samples of increasing complexity were analyzed by a number of Dutch institutes. Whereas a large spread in results was observed in the first stage, results in the last stage deviated less than ±10% from the values certified by an independent referee institute, even for comple, sludge samples. It was found that in particular the use of different values for the -yields and branching ratios amongst the institutes was responsible for the initial spread.
Authors:Zs. Révay, T. Belgya, L. Szentmiklósi, and Z. Kis
The PGAA facility at the Budapest Research Reactor has been continually upgraded and developed since its start-up in 1996,
as a result of which its performance has improved considerably. The installation of the cold neutron source, the partial change
to supermirror neutron guides and their realignment increased the flux by almost two orders of magnitude. The data acquisition
has been modernized as well; digital spectrometers were tested and implemented in novel forms of gamma-ray spectrum collection.
This year a higher-efficiency HPGe detector and a new data acquisition module were put into operation. Most recently all the
neutron guides were changed to supermirror-coated ones to further increase the neutron flux. The improved evaluation software
makes possible a more reliable elemental analysis of the samples. In this progress report these developments are critically
reviewed. The characteristics of the latest system are also described. It is the first time that a set of new partial gamma-ray
production cross sections are presented, which are based on the new intensity values of 14N(n,γ)15N calibration standard.
At the end of the 1991 Gulf War the U.N. Security Council Resolution called upon IAEA, assisted by the U.N. Special Commission, to carry out inspections of all Iraqi nuclear installations. The IAEA Action Team succeeded in implementing, on very short notice, a comprehensive system of inspection activities, including sampling and analysis at the Agency's Laboratories and other laboratories in Member States. The Agency's Laboratories developed and implemented an analytical strategy with the aim to rapidly and accurately obtain the information necessary for verifying the Iraqi declarations. The analyses ranged from screening for - and /-emitters to accurate determinations of the amounts and isotopic composition of the radionuclides and associated trace elements and compounds. The arsenal of methods included ultra-sensitive radiometric methods, mass spectrometry, neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Selected results include the detection of uranium chloride compounds, special composition steels, and quantitative accounting of uranium and plutonium production. The selectivity, sensitivity and reliability of the applied analytical techniques in conjunction with validated sampling procedures are essential components of an analytical measurements system that can provide credible results.
Colloids play a major role in the transport of trace metals as well as radionuclides in natural waters. These species are of importance for passive take in biota.Radionuclides may form colloids and pseudocolloids during hydrolysis or through interaction with other components present in the water phase, such as clay minerals or humic substances. Furthermore, aggregation and dispersion and other transformation processes, will influence the colloidal fraction, for instance during storage of samples. Fractionation of radionuclides associated with colloids in natural waters should, therefore, take place in situ or shortly after sampling.Different analytical techniques are useful for the fractionation of colloids, pseudocolloids, and particles. In the present paper, the application of hollow fiber ultrafiltration and dialysis is demonstrated for radionuclides in waste waters from the Oscarshamn nuclear installation in Sweden.The results illustrate that hollow fiber ultrafiltration is a more powerful technique than dialysis. The fractionation is rapid, sorption is of minor significance, the pore size distribution is rather narrow, and the filtering capacity is high.
Authors:H. Biggin, N. Chen, K. Ettinger, J. Fremlin, W. Morgan, R. Nowotny, M. Chamberlain, and T. Harvey
On peut déterminer la présence de cadmium chez l'homme à l'aide de technique de l'analyse par activation neutronique in vivo.
La capture des neutrons thermiques par113Cd conduit à une émission γ prompt qui peut être détectée au moyen d'un semi-conducteur convenable. On a réalisé une installation
à l'Université de Birmingham pour produire au moyen d'un cyclotron un faisceau de neutrons pulsés. Une série d'expérience
a été faites sur des cadavres; ces expériences ont prouvé qu'il est possible de détecter le cadmium à une concentration de
2,0 ppm dans le volume d'un foie humain pour une dose de 1 rem. On discute des résultats et des applications possibles de
Authors:Christopher Ryan, Craig Marianno, William Charlton, and William James
The dissolution of the Soviet Union coupled with the growing sophistication of international terror organizations has brought
about a desire to ensure that a sound infrastructure exists to interdict smuggled nuclear material prior to leaving its country
of origin. To combat the threat of nuclear trafficking, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are deployed around the world to
intercept illicit material while in transit by passively detecting gamma and neutron radiation. Portal monitors in some locations
have reported abnormally high background counts. The higher background data has been attributed, in part, to the naturally
occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the concrete surrounding the portal monitors. Higher background increases the minimum
detectable activity (MDA) and can ultimately lead to more material passing through the RPMs undetected. This work employed
two different neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods for the purpose of developing a process to characterize the concrete
surrounding the RPMs. Thermal neutron instrumental NAA (INAA) and fast NAA (FNAA) were conducted on six samples from three
different composition concrete slabs. Comparator standards and quality control materials were used to help ensure that the
methods were both precise and accurate. The combination of INAA and FNAA accounted for 84–100% of the total elemental composition
of the samples. Knowing the composition of the concrete will allow RPM customers to choose suitable materials prior to installation,
thereby increasing the ability of the monitors to detect radiological and nuclear materials.
Authors:R. Keyser, W. Hensley, T. Twomey, and D. Upp
The necessity to monitor international commercial transportation for illicit nuclear materials resulted in the installation
of many nuclear radiation detection systems in Portal Monitors. To overcome the difficulty of innocent alarms due to a large
content of natural radioactivity or medical nuclides, Department of Homeland Security (DHS) supported the writing of the ANSI
N42.38 standard (Performance Criteria for Spectroscopy-Based Portal Monitors used for Homeland Security) to define the performance
of a portal monitor with nuclide identification capabilities, called a Spectroscopy Portal Monitor. To accomplish the necessary
performance, several different HPGe detector configurations were modeled using MCNP for the horizontal field of view (FOV)
and vertical linearity of response over the detection zone of 5 meters by 4.5 meters for 661 keV as representative of the
expected nuclides of interest. The configuration with the best result was built and tested. The results for the FOV as a function
of energy and the linearity show good agreement with the model and performance exceeding the requirements of N42.38.
Due to a need for security screening instruments capable of detecting explosives and nuclear materials there is growing interest
in neutron generator systems suitable for field use for applications broadly referred to as active neutron interrogation (ANI).
Over the past two years Thermo Electron Corporation has developed a suite of different compact accelerator neutron generator
products specifically designed for ANI field work to meet this demand. These systems incorporate hermetically-sealed particle
accelerator tubes designed to produce fast neutrons using either the deuterium-deuterium (En = 2.5 MeV) or deuterium-tritium (En = 14.1 MeV) fusion reactions. Employing next-generation features including advanced sealed-tube accelerator designs, all-digital
control electronics and innovative housing configurations these systems are suitable for many different uses. A compact system
weighing less than 14 kg (MP 320) with a lifetime exceeding 1000 hours has been developed for portable applications. A system
for fixed installations (P 325) has been developed with an operating life exceeding 4500 hours that incorporates specific
serviceability features for permanent facilities with difficult-to-access shield blocks. For associated particle imaging (API)
investigations a second-generation system (API 120) with an operating life of greater than 1000 hours has been developed for
field use in which a high resolution fiber-optic imaging plate is specially configured to take advantage of a neutron point-source
spot size of ∼2 mm.
Materials of significant inhomogeneity require big samples to be analyzed. With the exception of very few installations worldwide
the near-core neutron irradiation positions are not spacious enough to fulfil this condition. The use of beam geometry activation
analysis (BEAMGAA) has actually turned out to be an alternative as the activities obtained are proportional to the product
of flux and sample mass. In the case of hard photon radiation delivered by the 30 MeV-Linac of BAM, equipped with a programmable
scanner of the electron beam for dose equalization, a nearly uniform distribution could be obtained in a volume of 7 cm×7
cm×2 cm. It is shown that big sample volumes up to 7 cm×7 cm×10 cm can be treated and non-linearities of irradiation can be
perfectly taken into account by the self-adjusting method of consecutive correction factors (COCOFA). Nevertheless, the concept
of “sliced samples” has to be considered when maximum correctness of the analytical results has to be guaranteed. With the
measures described in photon activation analysis a quality level was realized which was not reached hitherto.
South Africa signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) and accordingly made commitments to the Organization (CTBTO). Of the obligations are the establishment of a Radionuclide Laboratory, the design, installation and operation and maintenance of a radionuclide particulate and noble-gas monitoring station and the nomination of one radionuclide specialist South African to serve on an international team for On-Site Inspection (OSI). The last to provide expertise when the worldwide monitoring network provides strong indications that an illegal nuclear test has been performed at the territory of a State Party. The inspection team will be equipped with amongst others radiation monitors and nuclide specific measuring equipment limited to report on specific radionuclides agreed upon by all State Parties. In real-time operational circumstances one may assume that all members of the team will not be registered radiation workers and accordingly be regarded as members of the public when radiation hazard is to be evaluated. In this paper we try to categorize the radionuclides of interest and evaluate the radiological risk to the OSI-team due to inhalation of airborne radioactive particulate matter during the survey at the site of an anticipated nuclear test. From this study recommendations will be made to the CTBTO for possible implementation of portable sampling and analysis equipment to allow on-site evaluation of the potential internal exposure of OSI-team members.