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Okra seedlings tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. No connection was revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position. However, the okra proved to be susceptible to strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. R. zeae, a species new to European flora, was as aggressive to okra as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection was more prominent on mass accumulation in hypocotyls than in cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase activity increased in parallel with the evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic antioomycete fungicide induced glutathione S-transferase activity in cotyledons with 24 hours a phase, and this induction was more outstanding in symptomless seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil. It might be concluded, that the stress response of plants in tolerant host/parasite pair takes effect at higher level than in susceptible relationships.

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Magyar Sebészet
Authors: Gergely Vertse, Egon Svastics and András Iványi

Absztrakt

Az emlőbesugárzást követő másodlagos angiosarcoma ritka betegség, mégis az emlőmegtartó kezelések arányának növekedésével számítani lehet gyakoribbá válására. Az igen malignus, gyorsan progrediáló daganat diagnózisában a szövettani minta immunhisztokémiai feldolgozása segít. Sikeres kezelést az időben elvégzett radikális sebészi beavatkozás biztosíthat. A szerzők egy 56 éves nőbeteg esetét ismertetik, akinél 10 évvel a jobb mamma csökkentett radikalitású műtétje és radioterápiája után alakult ki szekunder angiosarcoma a maradék emlőben.

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While the Anabaptist movement was still fluid in the early 1520s, it soon crystallized into factions with sharp differences. Although the Moravian Anabaptists never succeeded in creating common doctrines and practices, the Central and East European experience was not merely a marginal part of the great Anabaptist story. Out of these divergent tendencies grew a strong sect that survived exile through a radical social experiment. Hutterite colonies, settled in a hostile environment, flourished for a long period while other sects disappeared within a few years. The factors that determined the advance and survival of the Hutterites point beyond religious motives. This social experiment was dependent on the integrated social structure enabling them to cope with an aggressive environment without assimilating. Various epochs of the Hutterite history show that communal life was never a uniform and perfect experience, but variants of the structure persisted in the colonies as they evolved in their local circumstances.

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Abstract

In many animals red is a signal of dominance and in humans there is evidence that red colouration may provide an advantage in sporting competition. This has been disputed by findings showing that colours other than red can also provide a competitive advantage. Here we examine basic perception of red versus blue in simple shapes by human judges to address the social signalling properties of red. We show that red is seen as more likely to win in physical competitions, more aggressive and more dominant then blue. When hue information is removed, however, the darker contrast of the blue shapes leads to a reversal in the attributions. This confirms that red hue is special in social attribution consistent with it being a signal of competitive quality and that darker contrast, through a potential link to testosterone signalling, could also act as a signal of dominance.

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Abstract  

Patinae on Cu-base alloys have been characterized by means of GDOS, SEM, XRD and AFM. The effect of a protective coating was tested in aggressive artificial solutions. Patinae and the bulk of several metal Punic objects were also examined. The GDOS results combined with SEM capabilities allow exhaustive investigation of composition, element distribution and microstructure of modified surface in modern bronzes exposed to accelerated ageing tests as well as in ancient bronzes. The SEM data of the patina thickness agree with the GDOS data. The XRD and SEM investigations allow an exhaustive characterization of corrosion products. Corrosion growth in its early stages determines the effectiveness of the patina's protective role and the AFM is a promising technique for investigating this.

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The chemical corrosion and the mechanical strength were studied in cement mortars containing an additive of FBCC under conditions of long-term action of sodium sulphate solution or saturated brine. The observations have shown that saturated brine is a more aggressive agent, since it leaches Ca(OH)2 and contributes to the decomposition of the C-S-H phase thus worsening the compressive strength as compared with that of mortars kept in water. The addition of 20% FBCC inhibits the leaching process and counteracts the decrease of compressive strength in mortars kept in brine. On the other hand, sodium sulphate solution changes favourably the mortar microstructure, increases of the content of small pores and improves both the compressive and the flexural strengths, as compared with those of a mortar kept in water.

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New, quantitative methods for the determination of actinides have been developed for application to marine environmental samples (e.g., sediment and fish). The procedures include aggressive dissolution, separation by anion-exchange resin, separation and purification by extraction chromatography (e.g., TRU, TEVA and UTEVA resins) with measurement of the radionuclides by semiconductor alpha-spectrometry (SAS). Anion-exchange has proved to be a strong tool to treat large volume samples, and extraction chromatography shows an excellent selectivity and reduction of the amounts of acids. The results of the analysis of uranium, thorium, plutonium and americium isotopes by this method in marine samples (IAEA-384, -385 and -414) provided excellent agreement with the recommended values with good chemical recoveries.

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Summary

A new Catholic aristocracy of the Thirty Years War initiated the rise of new local cultural centres possessing strong political and economic autonomy, which reflected the absolutist status of their rulers. The foreign noble soldiers formed an entirely new group of donators at this time. The traditional Bohemian nobility was active in administrative offices and focused on building spectacular city palaces in political centres [Vienna, Prague]. The officers of the Imperial army created private local residences as centres of their small regional domain, often situated in the border zone of the country. Research has not yet paid much attention to the patronage of these war conquistadors, with the exceptions of the generals Albrecht of Wallenstein and Rombaldo Collalto. Wallenstein's officers and his army rivals brought to Bohemia not just an aggressive policy but also proto-Baroque style in architecture and a new cultural orientation.

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The purpose of social co-ordination mechanisms is to co-ordinate the activities of individuals and organisations specialised in the distribution of work. The paper reviews five basic types of mechanisms: market, bureaucratic, ethical, aggressive and co-operative co-ordination. Today’s world operates on the basis of a duality: international cooperation is based on nation states, in which the public administrations work according to bureaucratic coordination. However, the increasingly globalised market responds to the logic of market coordination. The article argues that in terms of understanding the working of public administration, the various coordination mechanisms are of crucial importance, especially where various mechanisms meet, such as the relationship between nation states and multinational corporations.

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Calorimetric comparison of portland cements containing silica fume and metakaolin

Is silica fume, like metakaolin, characterized by pozzolanic activity that is more specific than generic?

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Talero and V. Rahhal

Abstract  

This new study must be regarded to be a direct outcome of two previous studies published by these same authors, which were conducted to respond to interesting questions brought out about the effect of silica fume, SF and metakaolins, M and MQ, on the heat of hydration of portland cements, PC, with very different C3A and C3S contents. The answer to these so interesting questions has been the primary objective of the present research. For this purpose, the same PC, PC1 (14% C3A) and PC2 (≈0% C3A), metakaolins, silica fume and blended cements were once again used more 60/40 for sulphate attack, and the same analytical techniques (CC, pozzolanicity and XRD analysis) and parameters determined as well. In this new research, the sulphate attack was determined by two accelerated methods: Le Chatelier-Ansttet and ASTM C 452-68. The experimental results of sulphate attack mainly, have demonstrated definitively that the high, rapid and early pozzolanic activity exhibited by SF also is, as in the case of the two metakaolins, more specific than generic, for it indirectly stimulated greater C3A than C3S hydration, but only in the first 16 h monitored in this study. Thereafter it is the contrary, i.e., anti- or contra-specific for the same purpose. And the longer the hydration time, the more anti- or contra-specific it became, since, when exposed to sulphate attack, SF blended cements resisted or even prevented the aggressive attack against PC1 which, with a higher C3A content than PC2, was the more vulnerable of the two. By contrast, metakaolin MQ not only failed to hinder or prevent the attack, but heightened its effects, rendering it more intense, aggressive and rapid, leading to what could be called a rapid gypsum attack.

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