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In the past decades researchers examining burial customs have recognised local phenomena pointing to the cultural diversity of the Avar population inhabiting the Carpathian Basin. Thus it has been proposed that several groups of different traditions and cultures may have coexisted in the territory of the Avars. In the recently excavated 7th–8th-century Avar cemeteries near Szekszárd (Szekszárd-Tószegidűlő, Tolna-Mözs-Fehérvize-dűlő) another — already known (Szekszárd-Bogyiszlói út és Gyönk-Vásártér út cemetery) — characteristic phenomenon was observed that can now be regarded as a regional feature. The paper discusses this burial type - which has recently also been found in great numbers in the cemetery of Tolna-Mözs —, namely the empty graves containing no human remains. Empty burials have been known in cemeteries of the Avar Age, however, their number is usually insignificant compared to the total number of graves. The aim of this paper is to analyse the possible reasons for empty graves and to show that they were the result of a conscious custom, most probably intended as symbolic burials.

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The analysis of three small hieratic papyrus fragments coming from a secondary burial place (Tomb B) in the outer courtyard of TT 32 shows that the otherwise rare custom of attaching the papyrus to the outer surfaces of mummy linen via a resinous substance was not only occurring in Ptolemaic Akhmim but is thus attested in Thebes too.

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Coffin Text Spell 440 is one of a number of texts recited during the funeral of the early Middle Kingdom. It consists of three parts, the first introducing the deceased, the second addressing the two mourning women accompanying the coffin and the third closing the burial.

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Contrary to earlier assumptions, the rich burial in qurgan no. 3 at Üc Tepe cannot be the inhumation of a Sabir or Avar warrior or that of a Persian officer. According to the testimony of the inscribed golden signet ring, whose legend runs as follows: Silig i abarzeniganbed “Silig the commander of the guards of the royal tent”, the burial belonged to a Turk nobleman, Silig by name, who entered the service of Xusro I Šahanšah and was appointed by him to commander of the guards of his general headquarters. The Karnamag of Xusro I mentions two settlements of Turkic tribes in Iran in 540/541 A.D. and 568 A.D. Very likely it was the latter one in the course of which the Turk chief entered the military service of the Persian king.

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Buried soils are grouped into three categories, namely Holocene soils, Pleistocene ones and those of earlier geologic periods. Buried soils mainly occur on floodplains and in sandy areas in Hungary. Gradual subsidence of the lowland areas and irrationally high rate of deforestation in the catchment regions have resulted in the burial of soils with younger deposits in the floodplain areas; most of the soils buried here are black hydromorphic ones. The major cause of burial in the sandy areas, however, is repeated deposition of the shifting sand. Climatic changes and the beginning cultivation of the originally grassland and forest areas have resulted in the movement and redeposition of the sandy deposits. Most of the Pleistocene-age paleosols have come to light in loess profiles. They can be regarded as remnants of forest soils with varying humus profiles and serve as excellent stratigraphic markers in studies of loess deposits.

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Summary  

This report presents the results of the determination of radionuclide component of the scales on the inner surfaces of oil well pipes and pump-compressors for certain oilfields in Kazakhstan. Results of 96 investigations show that the main contamination of pipe surface scales with radionuclides was related to the accumulation of 226Ra, 228Ra and their daughter decay products. Study of the scales removed by means of a special solution of “COX ASIA-CLEAN' revealed that practically all radionuclides were removed from the inner surface of the pipes. Scales, after segregation from the solution, contained the radionuclides in strongly bound conditions. Loss of radon isotopes comprised at most 3& to 5& of the radioactivity within the scales. These results suggest that an economically effective method for burial of radioactive scales is possible. Methods of cleaning and burial were tested at one of the oilfields in Kazakhstan.

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Abstract  

Determination of retardation factors and coefficients of distribution using a simplified mathematical model for analyzing the migration of leachate and radioactive material contained in radioactive waste burial concrete trench systems has been developed. Results show that concrete for engineered trench systems secures radionuclide preservation in solidified medium for longer than 300 years. These results will be used for constructing future radioactive waste storing centers in Yugoslavia.

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Religious Conflicts and Cultural Differences in the Jászkunság Region in the 18.-20. Centuries - The Habsburg court and Queen Maria Theresa began the forced settlement of Catholics into Hungary in the 18th century. The study examines the form these efforts at recatholicization took among the Jazygians (Jászok) and Cumanians (Kunok) living in the north-west of the Great Plain, the denominational conflicts they caused and the influence on human relations, everyday and festive customs. The study also deals with Catholic-Calvinist mixed marriages and the differences in way of life and customs (differences in festive days, weddings and burials between the denominations living within the same settlement).

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This paper deals the Iron Age metalworks found in South Transdanubia, southern part of the Great Plain and in the Srem area. The objects are known from hoards (Szárazd-Regöly, Čurog, Hrtkovci, Židovar), inhumation and cremation burials. The gold and silver jewellery (masked gold beads, wheel shaped gold amulets, crescent decorated gold beads, silver ornaments, crossbow silver fibulae), bronze astragalos belts, bronze rings, amber beads show the influence of Illyrian-Thracian workshops in the Northern Balkan. The objects can be dated to 4th–3rd centuries B.C.

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Whodunnit? — Disturbed graves in early medieval cemeteries . Graves disturbed in antiquity are a common feature in any period in which inhumation burial was practised. Disturbances of early medieval graves are often interpreted as human interference. Excavations at the Langobardic-period cemetery at Szólád (Kom. Somogy) in 2005–2007, however, indicated that the role of burrowing animals should not be underestimated. Excellent soil conditions demonstrated that at least 10% of the graves were disturbed by burrowing animals whose activities displaced bones and grave-goods. In this particular case, badgers, who are known to inhabit warrens for several generations and for extending them to a depth of 5 metres, are the most likely suspects.

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