The purpose of this paper is to produce an approach to Sol through Numismatics. I intend to point out the possible correspondences existing between the god Sol, referred to as Sol Invictus in historiography,1 and Apollo. While the solar facet of Phoebus Apollo is well known, to what extent he exerted an influence over Sol Invictus has yet to be elucidated. Comparing types and chronologies plus describing correspondences between the two gods in an homogeneous process may actually constitute a different approach. Three aspects will be taken into consideration: iconography exchange, the chronological relationship and the propagandistic function of coin legends. The aim is to incorporate the knowledge thus gained into a critical analysis of Sol in the 3rd century.
Quaternary thermogene and meteogene travertine occurs globally, both in Hungary and abroad. Size and thickness of the individual deposits are highly variable. They can be classified on the basis of water temperature, morphological setting, depositional environment, microfacies and fabric. All travertine is composed of pure low magnesian calcite and its stable isotopic composition (d13C, d18O) may change according to the facies. Sr and Ba are typical and some places enrichment of heavy metals, U, Th, and REE were also reported. Travertine is generally related to karst water springs; therefore, tectonically-controlled karstification, cave and soil formations are very common. It can be rich in fossils and its water depth varies from some centimeters to tens of meters. Chronology and timing of travertine can be solved by applying numerical, calibrated and correlative methods.
The environmental contamination of transuranics following the Palomares accident in 1966 (Southern Spain) has been continuous monitored on land and scientific programs are still running. The study of the land to sea transfer of the contamination started in 1986, focussed on the depositional history recorded in marine sediments. At the continental shelf, south of the mouth of the Almanzora river, enhanced levels of plutonium and americium were found which could be related to the accident. Additional analysis of marine sediments, collected far from the impact point, showed the presence of a hot particle. The study of the chronology of this sediment core and the isotopic ratios are given in this paper to assess the origin and pathway of the particle. The route of this particle was found to be the aerial transfer at the time of the accident.
Historical records of short lived (140Ba, 131I, 103Ru and 95Zr+95Nb) and long-lived (137Cs and 90Sr) fission products by fallout measurements performed in Argentina since 1959 were analyzed in order to define the main characteristics of 137Cs fallout time evolution in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary cores were sampled from Lake Nahuel Huapi and Lake Morenito, which are located within Nahuel Huapi National Park. 137Cs specific activity profiles were measured and 210Pb dating was performed in each core. The time evolution of 137Cs fallout shows different characteristics than records taken in the Northern Hemisphere.137Cs specific activity profiles of the cores studied reproduce the fallout time sequence observed in the historical records, and the chronology obtained shows excellent agreement with 210Pb dating.
Previous research may have failed to find a general relationship between war and techno-scientific activity due to the failure (a) to treat the various types of war separately and (b) to use yearly rather than generational time series. Hence, the present study examined 404 consecutive years in European civilization from 1500 to 1903. Measures of four distinct kinds of war were defined and a log-transformed measure of techno-scientific activity was derived from a factor analysis of six histories and chronologies. The techno-science measure was regressed on the war measures plus a set of control variables. Techno-scientific activity was found to be a negative function of balance-of-power and defensive wars fought within Europe. In contrast, imperial and civil wars exerted no influence.
Josef Strzygowski was invited to write the catalogue of the Coptic collection of Cairo's Egyptian Museum in 1900. His work appeared in 1904. Coptic art was for him an opposite of Machtkunst, a ‘national’ art, the art of a nation conquered, suppressed and exploited by a ruling class of foreigners. When cataloguing the Coptic collection in Cairo, Strzygowski could not fail to realise the domineering presence of types of architectural carvings that were also present in other regions of the Late Antique and Byzantine Mediterran. Instead of trying to establish a chronology and a qualitative hierarchy of the objects and to investigate their stylistic connections, he avoided the problem of the relationship between the high art of the Late Antique and Early Byzantine Mediterranean and what he considered Coptic national art.
The author had already demonstrated in a previous essay of his, that Cicero's De re publica was written in the period, when, either we take the new time of Atticus-Varro (753 BC) or the earlier time of Cato Senior (751/750 BC) as a basis, Rome celebrated the 700th anniversary of its existence. From this point of view the Ciceronian dialogue is an occasional work, which was made for the jubilee of Rome, yet in order to find a remedy for the Roman state facing such a crisis, so to speak a fatal danger. Cicero, from this viewpoint, would have been ready to take the special role of the moderator or the rector rei publicae (cf. rep., 2,52), of the person, who depends on his own honor and authority in the first place without any official commission. In this respect he renewed Cato Senior's intellectual inheritance, who published his Origines in a last, revised form in 149 BC, because on the one hand he wanted to introduce the glory of Rome, which city was born exactly 600 years earlier according to Cato's chronology, on the other hand Cato himself, not as a magistratus, but as the owner of his ancient authority, wanted to keep the state in balance, moreover to improve its situation. At the same time Cicero's state ideal seems to be closer to Scipio Aemilianus' conception indeed, that is why the author makes him the leading character of the dialogue, furthermore he dates the imaginary discussion to 129 BC, when Rome celebrated the 600th anniversary of its foundation according to Cincius Alimentus' chronology. By so doing the author of De re publica uses more time levels, confronting 149 BC, 129 BC and 53/51 BC, and all of these dates can be understood as certain Roman anniversaries. This essay demonstrates that Cicero wanted to present actually his own consular year, 63 BC as annus fatalis, and by this he partly continued the initiative of Marius and Sulla, preparing at the same time Augustus' ideology connected to the ludi saeculares of 17 BC, which considerably determined the whole mentality of Roman literature in the early period of empire. Therefore the saecularis idea can be rightly considered to be the Roman civilization's literature-creating factor.
Der Artikel befasst sich mit der Rolle der Buddhisten in der frühindischen Gesellschaft. Das monolithische Bild eines buddhistischen Zeitalters erfuhr in den letzten Jahrzehnten eine starke Änderung, wobei die sozioökonomischen Prozesse, statt eines großen Sprunges, eher als ein zeitlich und räumlich länger andauernder Entwicklungsprozess beschrieben wurden. Zu dieser Änderung beigetragen haben unter anderem die philologische Forschung, die neuere Datierungsergebnisse der Stadtentwicklung aufgrund der archäologischen Funde in den letzten Jahrzehnten, sowie die ertragreiche und immer noch offene Debatte über die Buddha-Datierung und nicht zuletzt die Ansicht, dass das Zeitalter des historischen Buddha im Vergleich zur traditionellen Auffassung etwas später anzusetzen sei. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, eine neue Lesart des sogenannten buddhistischen Zeitalters wahrnehmbar zu machen.
The article examines the history of the following words found in diplomatic correspondence of Muscovite Russia of the 17th century: vstupan'e 'entry (into); come into smth. (administration, possession); accession to the throne', vygubiti 'kill; exterminate, extirpate; destroy', vyznan´e 'confession; confirmation, evidence', vymogati, vymoci 'extort (from)', vypucen´e 'release; liberation,', vysvobo?(d)en'e 'liberation; discharge', vysluchati 'listen (to)'. The author aims at proving that these intraslavonic derivates are interslavonic borrowings/loanwords in the written Russian language of the second half of the 16th and 17th centuries. The article contains facts proving these words to be Polonisms in the Russian language and “prostaja mova”, the latter, in the author's opinion, appeared to be the mediator when these words were being borrowed by the Russian language. The materials of the article considerably specify the chronology of vstupan´e, vymogati, vymoci, vypucen´e in the Russian written language and it is the first time the words vyznan´e, vysluchati have been discovered in the monuments of the Russian written language by the author of this investigation.
On the coins in the cemetery of the Hungarian commoners at Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb
. The Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb cemetery, in which 540 graves of the Hungarian commoners were unearthed from the 10
centuries, was the richest one in the Carpathian Basin in regard of coins: a hundred and ninety-nine coins were uncovered in 145 graves, mostly of adults, from the period between (Saint) Stephen I (1000–1038) and Stephen II (1116–1131). The majority of the coins were intact; two of them were folded in half. Coins cut to pieces were placed in 48 graves: the fragments either belonged to the same item or they were independent segments. They appeared in three functions in the burial rite: in clusters as perforated coin ornaments (3 graves of children), as burial obols in the mouth or the hands 69 graves and as diverse coin grave-goods 98 graves. The distribution of the graves with coins shows a relative chronology in concentric stripes, where the oldest ones are in the centre. The village that used the cemetery has not yet been identified.