Generally, normative acts are passed without preambles in Germany. The federal Basic Law of 1949, like the Weimar Constitution of 1919, however, did contain a preamble, which has been modified in 1990, upon German reunification. The predominant view on that preamble minimizes its importance for the interpretation of the operative sections of the Grundgesetz. Until 1990, the only normative directive read into the preamble by the Constitutional Court was the precept of the reunification of Germany. According to most authorities on constitutional law, the introductory reference to God (nominatio or invocatio dei) has no legal connotation whatsoever.
Authors:R. Godinho, H. Wolterbeek, M. Pinheiro, L. Alves, T. Verburg and M. Freitas
The elemental microdistributions of peripheral and central parts of the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata exposed to industrial pollution were analysed, in order to better understand the elements distribution patterns in relation
to the lichen constitution, thereby increasing our knowledge on uptake and release mechanisms. Nuclear microscopy techniques
were used to visualize elemental distributions in sample transepts and associate their concentrations to sample morphology.
The distribution data of the elements studied suggests there is biological regulation of internal concentrations. Considering
thallus parts, element-specific internal translocation should be taken into account as one more factor affecting lichen “memory
Human beings live in a complex and magical system of nature. The constitution of everything is like the structure science of architecture, which presents various forms and combinations. The development of structure science makes modern architecture show the high unity of internal structure and external contour. Through the study of branch networks formed by rivers, the mystery of branch growth can be found, for instance fractal self-similarity, preferential growth at the tops, avoidance of homogeneity, etc. Based on the understanding of branch ecosystem, everyone can try to build a sustainable surface structure by mimicking the laws of river network.
The Polish Constitution adopted on 2 April 1997, for the first time after the war, contains a provision dedicated exclusively to protecting national and ethnic minorities, however without a definition of those two categories. The legislator extended the rights of national and ethnic minorities beyond those identified in the Article 35. The extension of such rights also results from international agreements. Thus far there is no statute regulating in a comprehensive and complete manner the situation of national and ethnic minorities (the Constitution does not make its adoption mandatory), the legal regulations concerning these issues are dispersed. The problem of legal definition of the national minority appeared in connection with the initiative of the formal recognition of the Union of People of Silesian Minority. Its application has been rejected by Polish courts for the reason of non-existence of such a minority and for the attempt of abuse of the electoral privilege granted to national minorities. The Supreme Court's position has been confirmed by the Chamber and then by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. However the 2002 national census revealed a new phenomenon of the Silesian minority: 3% of the inhabitants of the region declared their affinity to Silesian nationality.
This paper outlines the current problems of the different levels of Chinese administrative reforms implemented in the first three decades from 1978–1979 to 2008–2009. The discipline of legal sinology is a relatively new scientific field in Hungary and we have adopted its methods in the research leading to this study. The first and second parts of the study are based on the grounds of the most modern historical sources on the antecedents of the reforms. The third part of this work analyses the reform of the State Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The most important result of this process was the recognition and protection of basic human rights under the State Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The fourth part highlights recent administrative reforms from period to period. The administrative reform included the reform of the State Council (Government of the People’s Republic of China), as a result of which the number of the staff of the State Council diminished from 51,000 to 16,700. The final part of this study introduces the reforms of Civil Law. In 1949, the Guomindang Laws (inclusive of the Civil Code) were suspended by Chinese Communists; therefore, putting the new Civil Code into force was urgently necessary. The Draft Civil Code was completed in 2004.
The influence of substituents on the thermal decomposition of monomeric organic compounds was studied. For this purpose the thermal destruction of dozen or so α-amino acids of the diversified chemical constitution, among others compounds containing the second amine group, additional carboxyl group, amino acids containing hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups and amino acids connected with five-member heterocyclic ring or existing in the form of hydrates or hydrochlorides were investigated. The analyses were performed using a derivatograph in an air atmosphere, sample sizes were from 50 to 200 mg and heating rate from 3 to 15 K min-1. It has been established that the thermal decomposition of studied compounds occurs in three stages. The temperature ranges, in which the analyzed compounds undergo thermal transformations were established. For evaluation of the thermoanalytical results an advanced multivariate data processing method, principal component analysis (PCA), was used. By this method the influence of the specific functional groups on the thermal decomposition of α-amino acids was determined. The stage of decomposition, in which the thermoanalytic data are the best correlated to the chemical constitution of the compound, is the second stage. It has also been recognized, that better discrimination among the analyzed compounds was obtained for the data set of the DTA.
[Kossuth's political career], Budapest, 1977, 170-176.
For the history of Kossuth's draft constitution and its variant readings, see György Spira, Kossuth és alkotmányterve [Kossuth and his draft constitution], Budapest, 1989
One of the persistent fears regarding the accession countries envisions that these countries will not catch up with the prevailing practices of constitutionalism and the rule of law that allegedly constitute the common tradition of Europe. It is believed, and in many regards rightly so, that accession to the Union will push Eastern Europe towards the values and institutional settings of modernity. Given the process and political consequences of the accession, as well as for other, historical and cultural reasons, the short term modernization effects of the membership might be limited, even counterproductive. This paper discusses the impact of the current "Europeanization" on the public understanding and institutional structures of constitutional democracy in the new member states. Further, it evaluates the foreseeable impacts of the emerging European Constitution on the constitutional structures (the new checks and balances) in the new member states, except the human rights aspects of constitutionalism.
Upon the restoration of the Constitution in the Ottoman State, on 23 July 1908, which guaranteed the freedoms of thought and associations, many non-governmental organisations were established. One of these was the
(Turkish Association). Founded to promote research into the language, literature, history and culture of the Turks and related fields, the Society also published a periodical under the same name. In addition to works of Turkish scholars, some of the best achievements of Hungarian Turcology were translated into Turkish and published in this journal. By doing so, both the Society and the journal considerably contributed to the emergence and flourishing of scientific and cultural co-operation between the two countries in the pre-World War I period.