Authors:G.A. Rajanna, A.S. Dhindwal and R.K. Nanwal
Field experiment was conducted during the rabi (winter) seasons of 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, to evaluate the outcome of irrigation schedules and crop establishment techniques on physiological parameters, root parameters and water productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Flori & Paol) on sandy loam soils at CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar under four crop establishment techniques with three irrigation schedules allotted in strip plot design and replicated thrice. Zero tillage (ZT) and irrigation applied at CRI + IW:CPE = 0.90 registered significantly highest relative water content (RWC) of wheat leaves during 2012–2013 (83.6%) and during 2013–2014 (80.9%) as compared to conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT). Wheat planted on bed (FIRBS) and irrigation applied at CRI + IW:CPE = 0.90 evidenced significantly higher grain yield by 12–19% and took more days from spike initiation to anthesis, anthesis to milk stage and milk to maturity during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 crop seasons. WUE (144.6 and 155.4 kg ha-cm−1) and IWP (4.3 and 4.5 kg m−3) perceived highest under bed planting by using lower total consumptive use of water (35.71 and 35.45 cm) during the respective crop seasons. Thus the CU was around 6–12%, lower under FIRBS as compared to other crop establishment techniques. Application of irrigation at CRI + IW:CPE = 0.75 resulted in highest WUE (129.0 and 140.0 kg ha-cm−1) and IWP (4.2 and 4.4 kg m−3) with minimum water used (37.41 and 36.22 cm) during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively in contrast to other two moisture regimes.
Authors:S. L. Patil, M. N. Sheelvanter, V. K. Lamani and R. Reddy
A field experiment was conducted in Vertisols at Bijapur during 1994-96 to study the effect of tillage practices and integrated nutrient management on winter sorghum yield and soil nutrient availability. The increase in winter sorghum yield with deep tillage over medium and shallow tillage was 27 and 57% in 1994-95 as compared to 18 and 34% in 1995-96. Deep tillage resulted in 22 and 45% higher yield as compared to medium and shallow tillage in the pooled data. This was mainly due to conservation and increased availability of moisture and nutrients, i.e. N, P and K. The higher availability of nutrients in the topsoil (0-0.15 m) as compared to the subsoil (0.15-0.30 m) was due to the application of nutrients in the topsoil layer and the higher rate of mineralization. Among the organic materials applied, Leucaena loppings at 2.5 t ha-1 led to a significantly (9%) higher yield (1636 kg ha-1) over vermicompost (1500 kg ha-1) and was on par with farmyard manure (1572 kg ha-1) in the pooled data and during both years of the study. The higher percentage increase in grain yield with Leucaena application was due to the better moisture conservation and availability of major nutrients, i.e. N, P and K. Winter sorghum responded significantly to N application at 25 kg ha-1 in 1994-95, whereas in 1995-96 and in the pooled data the response varied up to 50 kg N ha-1. In the pooled data, the grain yield increased by 17 and 24% with the application of 25 and 50 kg N ha-1 compared with the control. The higher yields obtained with the application of nitrogen were due to the better availability of nutrients, especially N, as these soils are low in available N.