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Abstract

A website is a basic promotional tool of any company – regardless of the field of their activity. Cultural institutions of Central Europe gradually start to recognize the web's indispensability as well as technological base at the core of modern communicative processes. Museums of contemporary art in Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia – each to a different extent – make use of the Internet so as to inform about and promote themselves. The present study of the institutions’ websites conducted by the author presents the content of the websites and discusses what is and what should be presented. Is art really present on the art institutions’ websites?

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Abstract  

We have compared bibliometric data of Czech research papers generated from 1994 to 2005 with papers from six other EU countries: Austria, Hungary, Poland, Finland, Ireland and Greece. The Czech Republic ranked the fifth in number of papers per thousand inhabitants and the sixth in number of citations/paper. Relatively the most cited were Czech papers from fields Engineering and Mathematics ranking the third, and Computer Science, Environment/Ecology and Molecular Biology ranking the fourth among 7 EU countries. Our analysis indicates that Czech research is lagging behind the leading EU countries, but its output is proportional to the R&D expenses.

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The sovereign debt crisis of 2010 in the euro area significantly decelerated the monetary integration of the EU. The main purpose of this paper is to explore whether five post-communist member states of the EU are mature enough to adopt the euro. We used nominal exchange rates in the error correction model with asymmetric power ARCH (ECM-APARCH). Our results highlight that EU membership positively increased the impact of the euro on the currency of each of these countries in the short-run. In contrast, the long-term effect of the euro on each currency is negative for the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Croatia. Wholly different results were obtained for Poland and Romania. The APARCH model showed that the negative responses of the euro had a greater or neutral effect on the conditional variance of each currency instead of the positive responses. The debt crisis of the euro area had no impact on the dynamic linkages between the currencies. Our research concludes that Croatia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary are not ready to join the euro area in the near future. On the other hand, the currencies of Poland and Romania are already aligned with the fluctuations of the euro.

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In 1998, the European Union (EU) entered into negotiations with Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia concerning the enlargement of the Union. At the end of 1999, the European Commission decided that six other countries could join the negotiations in 2000 (Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Malta and Romania), and it was suggested that a decision concerning the date of membership would be taken in 2002 for these applicants fulfilling all the criteria. Many questions still remain on both sides, in particular regarding institutional reform of the EU (Festoc, 1998), and the ability of the Central and Eastern European countries to adopt the “acquis”.

In this article, we shall evaluate the ways in which the Central European countries (Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic — the CECs) have already integrated to the Western European economy, using trade data over the last ten years. First, we show that since the beginning of the transition, a feature of the foreign trade of the CECs has been a strong reorientation from East to West, in particular to Germany, together with a rapid growth in trade between the EU and the CECs. Second, we describe the trade structure, focussed on foreign direct investment as a mean of developing new exports. The third and fourth sections study the development of the specialisations of the CECs and the nature of trade between the CECs and the EU respectively.

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Spillovers from foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe

An index for measuring a country’s potential to benefit from technology spillovers

Society and Economy
Authors: Balázs Szent-Iványi and Gábor Vigvári

In the paper, we construct a composite indicator to estimate the potential of four Central and Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) to benefit from productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment (FDI) in the manufacturing sector. Such transfers of technology are one of the main benefits of FDI for the host country, and should also be one of the main determinants of FDI incentives offered to investing multinationals by governments, but they are difficult to assess ex ante. For our composite index, we use six components to proxy the main channels and determinants of these spillovers. We have tried several weighting and aggregation methods, and we consider our results robust. According to the analysis of our results, between 2003 and 2007 all four countries were able to increase their potential to benefit from such spillovers, although there are large differences between them. The Czech Republic clearly has the most potential to benefit from productivity spillovers, while Poland has the least. The relative positions of Hungary and Slovakia depend to some extent on the exact weighting and aggregation method of the individual components of the index, but the differences are not large. These conclusions have important implications both the investment strategies of multinationals and government FDI policies.

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The occurrence of sexual compatibility types (mating types) was studied in a set of 59 Bremia lactucae isolates originating from 33 naturally infected and wild populations of Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce) plants occurring in the Czech Republic, Germany and France. The isolates were collected in the period 1997-1999 as part of detailed population studies of virulence structure. Both compatibility types (B1 and B2) were recorded. However, the majority of the isolates was determined as type B2, with only two isolates being type B1. The reasons for and influence of this sexual structure are discussed in relation to the virulence of pathogen populations and interactions between wild and crop pathosystems. Occurrence of natural sexual reproduction of B. lactucae on L. serriola plants was extremely rare. Virulence variation of B. lactucae populations occurring on L. serriola would not seem to be related to sexual reproduction.

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Determination of consumers’ acceptance level of sushi meal among Czech respondents was the main aim. The survey included 1352 respondents that filled in a questionnaire on their demographic characteristics and food preferences regarding their acceptance of sushi meal. Additionally, 79 volunteers participated in sorting sushi among other 14 popular meals in the Czech Republic, according to their assumed situations. The results indicate that sushi is highly accepted among Czech consumers (more than 80% of respondents consume sushi) due to sensory characteristics and health benefit claims of sushi. The main barrier for sushi acceptance is sushi being a cold meal. The study emphasized that sushi price highly influences not only consumption frequency but also acceptance of sushi among respondents who declared not consuming this type of meal.

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The Magura Nappe is the innermost tectonic unit of the Western Flysch Carpathians and is linked with the Rheno-Danubian flysch of the Eastern Alps. Toward the east this unit runs as an arc from Austria through the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland, and then narrows in Eastern Slovakia before disappearing east of Uzhhorod (Trans-Carpathian Ukraine). The Magura Nappe is dominated by Paleogene deposits. In the Ukrainian Carpathians, SE of the Latorica River, the position of the Magura Nappe is occupied by the Marmarosh Flysch Zone. Two facies-tectonic units have been distinguished in this zone - the external Vezhany and the internal Monastyrets' units. Both the Magura Nappe and Marmarosh Flysch revealed the same geotectonic position, lithofacies development and a similar diachronic distribution of Eocene/Oligocene facies in the basins. The Vezhany succession could be regarded as the equivalent of the Fore-Magura thrust sheet in Poland, whereas the Monastyrets resembles the Rača development of the Magura Nappe in Poland and Slovakia.

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The concepts lying behind the words “witch” and “magician” have undergone a significant change in the past 60 years. While keeping much of the traditional connotations, the labels have attained new meanings in the new context of contemporary pagan and magical practice, which correspond with the actual needs, lifestyles and lifeviews of their contemporary bearers. The goal of the paper is first to describe the traditional concepts lying behind the terms “witch” and “magician” and second, to trace, capture and describe the transformation of these concepts in the last half of a century. The fieldwork data used in the paper come from my long-term research of neo-paganism and magical practice in the Czech Republic.

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The 1:75 000 scale Special Map (SM75) series of the Third Military Survey is analysed in this work. Geographic co-ordinates of the sheet corners are computed from the sheet number codes, as well as their grid co-ordinates in the modern Křovák Projection and Czech and Slovak national grid called S-JTSK. Distortions caused by paper drying and shrinkage were analysed and a mathematical algorithm is given to compute their effects. Statistical analysis shows that the shrinkage is direction-dependent at the studied 125 map sheets throughout the Czech Republic. This analysis also verified the usefulness and practical adaptability of the shrinkage correction method to obtain more precisely rectified map sheets for GIS applications.

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