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Summary  

Aim: to identify the influence of the 1991-1995 war on Croatian biomedical publications with reference to the Croatian universities and medical centers in Zagreb, Split, Rijeka and Osijek and their regions.  Methods: Internet provider PubMed was used to search MEDLINE database in the pre-war (1988-1990), war (1991-1995) and post-war (1996-2000) periods. Annual numbers of publications in the MEDLINE and Core Clinical Journals (Abridged Index Medicus; AIM-journals) were calculated for each center in the above mentioned periods. Our analysis included socio-economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP) and total employment, human resources such as the number of full-time researchers, teachers and researchers in biomedical sciences, university graduates, master and doctoral thesis. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used.  Results: In the 1988-2000 period the proportion of Croatian publications in the MEDLINE database was 0.076%. The proportion of AIM-publication in the MEDLINE was 11.5%, while the proportion of Croatian AIM-publications in Croatian publications in the MEDLINE was only 0.02%. Compared to the pre-war period, Croatia increased the number of publications in the MEDLINE in the war period (p<0.05) and post-war period (p<0.01). In the war period GDP and other socio-economic indicators decreased in contrast to an increase in biomedical publications. All centers increased the number of MEDLINE publications significantly in the war and post-war periods (p<0.01), while the growth of AIM-publications in Zagreb and Split was not significant. The proportion of biomedical publications in Zagreb decreased in the war and post-war periods while it was almost doubled in the other centers. Croatia increased its biomedical publication rates (per 100,000 inhabitants per year) from 3.8 (the pre-war period) to 6.6 (the war period) and 9.0 (the post-war period). In those periods biomedical publication rates were also increased in all centers with belonging regions, in spite of the war. A small number of teachers and researchers in biomedical sciences in Split and Osijek produced more publications per person in the war period than a larger number of their colleagues in other two centers.  Conclusion: Croatia and its centers, Zagreb, Split, Rijeka and Osijek increased biomedical publication rates despite enormous destruction and human losses caused by the war. Despite a significant increase in the quantity of Croatian publications in the MEDLINE database, the number of AIM-publications increased only slightly.

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New, quantitative methods and data sources for characterizing small scale soil resources have been demonstrated. AVHRR and coarse spatial resolution DEM were designed for mapping large areas of the world quickly and cost effectively. The method combines digital elevation data, “ground truth” information, including the soil taxonomic class for measured soil locations, and a time series of satellite images to form a digital soil database. The results show that using ancillary information such as AVHRR data and DEM derivatives from the national to continental level surveys is among the most promising tools for geographers and soil surveyors. The AVHRR data is often used for land cover studies but its usefulness in soil studies has not yet been proven. This study is a representative example of the usefulness of AVHRR data in characterizing the soil-forming environment and delineating soil patterns, particularly when integrated with other data for describing the soil landscape, such as the DEM, slope, curvature and PDD. The predictive power of AVHRR and similar low spatial resolution satellite data sources could be further improved with the development of soil sensitive filters. Mention should be made of the potential improvement of the products derived from these data sources with the use of better quality data provided by satellites that have been launched recently. Neither the AVHRR nor the DEM-derivatives show high correlation with the soil classes, but both represent a great portion of the environmental variability. In general, the more uncorrelated information is extracted from DEM and AVHRR, the better explanation of the spatial soil variability is achieved with an integrated use of them. The images of AVHRR time series show a relatively low correlation, thus each of the new dates adds much potential information on the soils. The studies also highlighted the great help of surface vegetation in soil remote sensing, as indicated by the high R² value of Band 1 and NDVI. The importance of the short-term weather history of the study area was also demonstrated.  Terrain information and terrain variables were primarily developed for large scale local studies. Small scale mapping of large regions presents different issues, like over-generalization and over-smoothing of the soil information. The terrain features with smaller extents are dissolved into a larger neighborhood. As a smoother terrain map is created, a lot of detail is lost and less variability is observable. Many of the terrain attributes are useless with this approach. Elevation, slope, relief intensity, potential drainage density and the curvature variables are the most informative digital variables for characterizing the soil-landscape in small scale inventories.  The resulting soil databases will have all the advantages of quantitatively derived databases, including consistency, homogeneity, and reduced data generalization and edge-matching problems. Although the results from the above procedures are believed to be accurate enough to serve as a basis for global and regional studies, they should be checked and further revised by local and regional experts to ensure quality. Research should continue on improving the procedures, augmenting the pedon data with new field sampling, and incorporating new image and DEM data sources. One of the most important results of these studies is the demonstration of the usefulness of these data sources for small scale soil mapping and the overall validity and representatitivity of the AVHRR-terrain/soil correlation within the temperate region of the world. Further studies will need to be performed to test the use of AVHRR and terrain data for other climate zones of the World, where potential problems, like continuous cloud cover, may occur.

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A myocardialis infarctus miatt kórházban kezelt betegek ellátásáról, korai és késői prognózisáról eddig nem jelent meg átfogó hazai közlemény. Célkitűzés: Az infarktus miatt kezelt betegek ellátási módjának, a betegek prognózisának vizsgálata. Módszer: A szerzők hat év (2004–2009) finanszírozási adatbázisának elemzésével vizsgálják a kórházban kezelt infarktusos betegek számát, a kezelés során elvégzett katéteres érmegnyitás gyakoriságát, valamint a betegek 30 és 365 napos halálozását. Eredmények: Megállapítják, hogy a vizsgált időszakban a kórházban kezelt infarktusos betegek száma lényegében nem változott (körülbelül 16 500 beteg/év). A kórházi esetek alapján számított incidenciaérték a férfiak esetén minden korcsoportban magasabb, mint a nőknél, a különbség az idősebb korcsoportok esetén csökken. A megfigyelési idő alatt a 30 és a 365 napos halálozás 1,8%-kal csökkent (18,9% vs. 17,1%, illetve 29,9% vs. 28,1%), ami a 70 évnél idősebb betegpopuláció halálozásának csökkenéséből adódik. A vizsgált időszakban az infarktus kezelése során végzett katéteres érmegnyitások lényegesen gyakoribbá váltak (18,2% vs. 49,8%). A finanszírozási adatbázisban használt betegségek nemzetközi osztályozása egységesen kezeli a myocardialis infarctus különböző formáit, ezért a katéteres érmegnyitás életkilátásokra kifejtett hatása – kórformák szerint – nem vizsgálható. Következtetések: A szerzők megállapítják, hogy a finanszírozási adatbázis alkalmas az ellátás alapvető adatainak vizsgálatára, ellátásszervezési döntések támogatására, ugyanakkor az ellátás megfelelőségének, az egyes beavatkozások eredményességének mérése prospektív, a speciális szempontokat kielégítő adatbázisok működtetésével lehetséges, amelyek a részleteket is feltáró elemzéseket tesznek lehetővé. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 102–112.

Open access

Abstract  

The file-drawer problem is the tendency of journals to preferentially publish studies with statistically significant results. The problem is an old one and has been documented in various fields, but to my best knowledge there has not been attention to how the issue is developing in a quantitative way through time. In the abstracts of various major scholarly databases (Science and Social Science Citation Index (1991–2008), CAB Abstracts and Medline (1970s–2008), the file drawer problem is gradually getting worse, in spite of an increase in (1) the total number of publications and (2) the proportion of publications reporting both the presence and the absence of significant differences. The trend is confirmed for particular natural science topics such as biology, energy and environment but not for papers retrieved with the keywords biodiversity, chemistry, computer, engineering, genetics, psychology and quantum (physics). A worsening file-drawer problem can be detected in various medical fields (infection, immunology, malaria, obesity, oncology and pharmacology), but not for papers indexed with strings such as AIDS/HIV, epidemiology, health and neurology. An increase in the selective publication of some results against some others is worrying because it can lead to enhanced bias in meta-analysis and hence to a distorted picture of the evidence for or against a certain hypothesis. Long-term monitoring of the file-drawer problem is needed to ensure a sustainable and reliable production of (peer-reviewed) scientific knowledge.

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Scientometrics
Authors: T. Markpin, B. Boonradsamee, K. Ruksinsut, W. Yochai, N. Premkamolnetr, P. Ratchatahirun and N. Sombatsompop

Abstract  

This article proposed a new index, so-called “Article-Count Impact Factor” (ACIF) for evaluating journal quality in light of citation behaviour in comparison with the ISI journal impact factors. The ACIF index was the ratio of the number of articles that were cited in the current year to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years. In this work, we used 171 journal titles in materials categories published in the years of 2001–2004 in international journals indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database as data source. It was found that ACIF index could be used as an alternative tool in assessing the journal quality, particularly in the case where the assessed journals had the same (equal or similar) JIF values. The experimental results suggested that the higher the ACIF value, the more the number of articles being cited. The changes in ACIF values were more dependent on the JIF values rather than the total number of articles. Polymer Science had the greatest ACIF values, suggesting that the articles in Polymer Science had greater “citation per article” than those in Metallurgical Engineering and Ceramics. It was also suggested that in order to increase a JIF value of 1.000, Ceramics category required more articles to be cited as compared to Metallurgical Engineering and Polymer Science categories.

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Summary  

Quantitative and qualitative scientific evaluations of the research performance of Thai researchers were carried out with regards to their international publications and citations in four different subject categories; namely Clinical Medicine, Chemistry, Material Sciences, and Engineering. This work used citations to publications of Thai researchers in the Science Citation Index (SCI) database during 1998-2002 as a data source. The calculations and comparisons of article impact factors (AIF), position impact factors (PIF) and journal impact factors (JIF) were attempted for quantitative evaluation.The positions and significance levels (cited contents) of the citations were considered for qualitative assessment.For quantitative evaluation, the highest article quantity and number of times cited were given by Thai researchers in Clinical Medicine, the lowest being for Material Sciences. Clinical Medicine had the highest AIF value, while Engineering exhibited the lowest. Each article by Thai researchers was found to be cited more than once within a citing article, especially articles in Clinical Medicine. For qualitative assessment, most articles from Thai scholars were cited in Introduction and Results & Discussion sections of the citing articles. Only non-Thai researchers in Clinical Medicine preferred to use Discussion from Thais' articles for discussion of their work whereas those in Chemistry, Material Sciences and Engineering were referred as general references. Less than 1.5% of research works of Thai scholars were cited as “the pioneer”for the research communities of the subject categories of interest.

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Summary  

SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library on Line, www.scielo.bireme.br) is aprogram aimed at offering a core of Brazilian Scientific Journals in an open access mode at internet. This initiative has been followed by other Latin American, Caribbean and Iberian countries. Along with the development of the open accessed electronic library, a complementary scientometric/bibliometric database has been set up which permit to retrieve citation data of more than 40,000 articles. The robustness that this database has now achieved allows one to make important studies which were not possible before, using only the international Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database.

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Biases affecting the proportional reporting ratio (PRR spontaneous reports pharmacovigilance databases: The example of sertindole Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 12 4 271

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In this article, we propose a technique for the precise cleaning of the gravity anomaly database based on the cross validation approach. The terrestrial gravity anomalies were compared versus a global geopotential model and take into account the effect of topography in this comparison. The efficiency of the cross-validation technique is illustrated in outlier detection as well as in choosing the proper gridding technique as a case study in construction of the Iranian new gravity database. In order to reduce the effect of topography and the discretisation error, a special interpolation scheme is used for gridding of the free-air gravity anomalies. The final grid file was created based on the Kriging method with 80″ × 90″ block resolution. The overall accuracy for the new Iranian gravity database is estimated in the order of 10 mGal.

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development of discipline on limnology, and potentially guide limnologist for evaluating and orienting their research. Materials and methodology Documents used in this work were based on the database of the Science Citation Index

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