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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Lisette M. Maico, Annie M. Burrows, M. P. Mooney, M. I. Siegel, K. P. Bhatnagar and T. D. Smith

Most studies on mammalian vomeronasal organ (VNO) have been on laboratory-bred animals. Our present study examines the VNO in wild-caught meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus; n=16) and prairie voles (M. ochrogaster; n=15). These species vary in their mating strategies and degree of parental care by males. M. ochrogaster exhibits pair bonding and more paternal care compared to M. pennsylvanicus, a promiscuous species. We hypothesize that sexual dimorphism will occur in the promiscuous species based on previous studies which suggest that those who exhibit more aggressive or masculine behavior have larger VNOs. Our results support our original finding that VNOs are not different in size in wild Microtus spp. that vary in male parental tendencies. However, the present study also indicates that M. pennsylvanicus, the species exhibiting more disparate parental tendencies, exhibited larger VNOs in females than males. This is the reverse of previous findings on rats, and we hypothesize that this difference may be due to mate selectivity and/or maternal aggression.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Linda Nógrádi, Iain Cope, Márton Balogh and János Gál

The authors present eight cases of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in guinea pigs from the Department and Clinic of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between 2012 and 2016. Seven animals were operated on and two survived. Gastric torsion has been noted in many mammalian species. Gastric volvulus has a high morbidity and high mortality rate with a guarded to poor prognosis in all of these species. How GDV develops is still not widely understood. Postmortem examinations, in both our cases and previously reported cases, have failed to reveal the exact causes of the gastric torsions. The aetiology of gastric torsion in guinea pigs is probably multifactorial. Feeding fewer meals per day, eating rapidly, decreased food particle size, exercise, stress after a meal, competition, age, and an aggressive or fearful temperament, are all likely and potential risk factors for GDV development in a similar fashion to dogs. Sex, breeding, dental diseases, anatomical abnormalities, pain and pregnancy may also be contributing factors.

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Pedological and coenological investigations were made around the villages of Alsószuha and Gömörszőlős, in the Putnok Hills microregion, which forms part of the Northern Hungarian Mountains. These were complemented with laboratory nutrient analyses, giving the opportunity to compare the pedological relationships and erosion of natural and ploughed areas. Arable lands can often be found on steep slopes. The brown forest soil types characteristic of these areas are less sensitive to erosion, but they suffer significant damage when cash crops are hoed regularly even on steep slopes.Coenological data indicative of the previous farming system are presented for three plots near Alsószuha. Regular mowing resulted in a large number of plant species even 10 years after cereal production was abandoned. The lack of regular mowing on a plot with a similar farming history, however, resulted in the dominance of aggressive weeds. The species on the third plot showed that the 42 years that had elapsed since cereal production was abandoned, followed by grazing until 1990, ensured enough time for revegetation and the generation of a secondary grassland (slope steppe) in a close-to-natural state. Invasive weeds were absent from all the observed plots.

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A 2010 banking survey of 42 foreign bank executives by Price Waterhouse Coopers ranked competition from “domestic” Chinese banks as their primary concern. This outranked the “regulatory environment” which had been number one for the previous two years. Several reasons were cited by foreign bank managers but three stand out: (1) declining market share for foreign banks due to reduced number of multinationals doing business in China, (2) foreign banks reluctance to lend locally due to the global economic slowdown, (3) the aggressive lending strategies of Chinese banks. This paper focuses on the new reality of contemporary Chinese banking practice. We believe Chinese banks are learning and adapting. They are gaining expertise in a wide array of bank operations such as asset management, branching, securities, leasing and many more. To better understand the nature and context of growing Chinese bank competitiveness, we introduce and apply the concept financial “econiche”. Financial econiche refers to the learning and adapting that takes place in a specific financial “ecological” surrounding with attention paid to the macroeconomic need for harmonious development. Econiche theory borrows heavily from similar ideas in the natural world. We construct an evaluation indexation system based on the econiche theory, and use Huaxia bank as a case study.

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Magyar Sebészet
Authors: György Ledniczky, Gábor Bognár, Csaba Diczházi, Bíborka Bereczky, Loránd Barabás and Pál Ondrejka


A dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) a törzs és a felső végtagok ritka, fibrohystiocytás tumora, amit lokálisan agresszív, lassú növekedés, igen gyakori recidíva és ritka metastasisképzés jellemez. DFSP az emlőben irodalmi raritás. Esettanulmányunkban a 65 éves beteg jobb emlőjében, többszöri fibroadenoma és neurofibroma kimetszését követően kialakult, fibrosarcomás átalakulást is mutató DFSP-t mutatunk be perioperatív, szövettani és immunhisztokémiai fényképsorozattal dokumentálva az igen nagy nonphylloid sarcoma mastectomiával és axillaris blockdissectióval történt eltávolítását, hisztológiai és immunhisztokémiai jellemzőit.

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Words like aggression, violence, and violent actions usually carry destructive meanings. People tend to forget their constructive culturally determined meanings. In spite of this, it can be argued that aggressive feelings, hatred, anger, verbal aggression, threatening behaviour, assault, inflicting pain, injuring or ritual killing of men, or the fighting of war are all part of our lives as much as feasts and rituals that bind communities together, or the command to love of different religious ideologies. In the 16th century there was a definitive turn in judging the body in public. It meant that public attention gradually turned from the corpse of Christ to the bodies of the thieves. The two thieves were brought down from their crosses, laid out on the dissecting table, or their bodies were torn apart during fights. Evil-doers became part of scientific cognition. The antisocial public enemy became a hero of the community in the popular literature and historic stories. The conserved and stuffed bodies of robbers and killers were displayed in the first museums of the Early Modern Age, as a main attraction. Rebels were cut into pieces as part of a baroque play on the killing floor to display the parts in buildings of the town. The body of the everyday killer became a spectacle, and the interest in the mind of the solitary killer developed medical thinking on the human spirit.

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The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized tri-layer structure with unique functional properties. Podocyte dysfunction and cytoskeletal disorganization leads to disruption of the slit diaphragma, and proteinuria. Inflammatory diseases involving the kidney as well as inherited podocytopathies or diabetic nephropathy cause injury of the podocyte network. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity that is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria in both adults and children. Several causative genes have been identified in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Mutations of the transient receptor potential canonical-6 (TRPC6), a non-selective cation channel that is directly activated by diacylglycerol (DAG), cause a particularly aggressive form of FSGS. Angiotensin II, acting through its AT1 receptor, plays a critical role in generation of proteinuria and progression of kidney injury in a number of kidney diseases, including FSGS. Mounting evidence suggest the central role of TRPC6 and perhaps other TRPC channels in the pathogenesis of FSGS as well as of acquired forms of proteinuria such as diabetic nephropathy or hypertension. Identification of signaling pathways downstream of TRPC6 may provide novel targets for the treatment of proteinuria and prevent progression of podocyte injury.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser and J. Wu

Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.

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The task of economics is apparently changing. After confronting the limits to growth, the economic interests, methods and thoughts, even its use of words and concepts are slowly but persistently modified. The discussion of “equilibrium” is replaced by the concern for a “sustainable path”. Instead of finding out how to produce “more” it looks for “better”, “cheaper” and “recyclable” commodities. Labor saving serves by and large the reduction of the working week and transformation of the life-cycle instead of surplus-production. The markets of developed countries are more easily glutted and their recessions deeper. The ever louder and more aggressive marketing attests to all this. It is high time to renew our old ways, to revisit the aged analytical and forecasting models. The renovation of obsolete concepts is rendered necessary to facilitate the introduction of an orderly and planned future of prudence. This investigation focuses less on the seldom, perhaps never occupied point of equilibrium, rather on the behavior and motion of the economic systems in its vicinity.

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Taxonomy of law and legal mapping

Patterns and limits of the classification of legal systems

Acta Juridica Hungarica
Author: Csaba Varga

Attempts from the 17th century onward anticipate the 20th-century mood of legal mapping. They classify legal arrangements by languages, races and genetic roots, then by their ideologies and technicalities. Later on they do so by separating the Western from the Soviet/socialist law, by their correspondence to underlying general cultures, as well as according to legal families. It is the insufficiency of resorting to dichotomy contrasting the Western “Us” to any differing Eastern “Others” that has recently resulted in typologising in terms of the dynamism and directions of legal development in the duality of professionalism and traditionalism or in the cross-reference of what is established/stable and unestablished/instable, and of what is drawn from Western and non-Western sources. Material taxonomy cannot be accomplished in law through genuine class-concepts. Characterisation through concepts of order can be achieved at most. In want of any meta-system, cultures formed to idealise and hypostasise ideas of order by independent principles can provide no common basis of division for law. Accordingly, only some division to major and minor sets and subsets can be achieved. The own arrangement will be better cognised by other schemes’ understanding. The gradual transcendence of rule-fetishism by identifying law with some specific culture may prevent the coming “clash of civilizations” from reaching aggressive self-assertion and care for the sustainability of the laws’ diversity.

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