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During the last years, the excavation mostly focused on the SE part of the villa. This territory was inhabited or even densely built in all through the existence of the villa. We could more precisely determine the chronology and periodisation of the entire site, which also included the publication and evaluation of the complete coin material of the site.

In the second part of the study, we examine a building of the villa that has been known for decades without being able to determine its function and role. We have already published its details and 3D reconstruction but it has not provoked substantial reaction. Its shape, structure and position within the villa complex and its wider geographical environment suggest that it could be a cold storage, an ice house. This type of building is barely known until the Modern Period. The shape of this building is not typical since was constructed with a different purpose and was only later modified to fit this function. The subterranean part of its structure afforded the observation of minute details. In this study we intend to present our hypothesis.

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The article is intended to analyse the temporal and spatial structure unfolding in the book "My Sister - Life". The temporal structure of the book is built on the succession of the four seasons. The seasons - and at times the months as well - have well-defined meanings in Pasternak's poetic system. The temporal structure of the book follows the cyclical order of the calendar year, and the events of a "love story" represent a linear progress in time. Furthermore, in the artistic composition of the book another type of chronology can be revealed, which can be described with the Bergsonian category of internal time, durée. What is crucial and vital for the lyrical hero is the internal correspondence of experiences and phenomena, which interrupts the linear progress of the narrative, as opposed to the external, rational and linear order of things.   The spatial structure of the book can be analysed with the help of the voyage motif. Parallel with travelling in the external world a voyage takes place in the internal realm of the lyrical hero's creative memory. The category of time and space are inseparable, interwoven in the course of the voyage and the unfolding of memories. In other words, events that can originally be characterised in temporal terms occur and evolve in the external space, which can be regarded as a poetical reinterpretation of an archaic, mythological space-time model.

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Abstract  

Six peat cores taken from three unmodified blanket and raised bogs in Ireland were sectioned and analyzed for a range of radionuclides including134Cs,137Cs,238Pu,239Pu,241Am, and210Pb.134Cs and137Cs were measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry, while the transuranium nuclides were determined after chemical separation by alpha-spectrometry.241Pu, present on the electroplated discs together with Pu(), was measured directly by low-level liquid scintillation counting. Core chronologies were established by measuring the unsupported210Pb component using low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS). From the resulting profiles, relaxation depths and migration rates for the above mentioned radionuclides have been determined and differences in the values of these parameters interpreted.238Pu/239,240Pu and241Pu/239,240Pu ratios have been examined carefully and are discussed in some detail. Finally, the contribution from Chernobyl to the total radiocaesium inventory in each core has been established using the134Cs/137Cs ratio observed in the initial fallout from Chernobyl.

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Abstract  

Downcore variation of trace metals in sediment cores along the coastal line is one of the markers to assess the intrusion of industrial pollutants into the aquatic environment. Fifty sediment core samples from the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB), were studied for the trace element content. MHB is a recipient of effluents from different industries situated all along its coast around Thane–Belapur region. The average concentrations of Titanium (Ti), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and complemented by analysing with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In addition to this, depth profiles of K and Ca were also studied to assess the homogeneity of the geological strata of the region. Trace metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn show enrichment between 16 to 28 cm, whereas, uniform distribution through out the core was observed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe. Chronology of the heavy metal deposition was predicated based on the average sedimentation rate (0.92 ± 0.08 cm year−1) derived using depth-wise 137Cs concentration profile in core of bottom sediment. The results of the analysis showed that MHB had received excess inputs of Cu, Ni and Zn in the year 1981, 1988 and 1982, respectively. Surface concentration of Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe compared to the reference site indicates moderate pollution in the recent years whereas for elements K, Ca, Ti and Mn, the values are normal indicating MHB unpolluted for the latter elements.

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Abstract  

Ranking lists of periodicals in different scientific disciplines are generally based on the total number of citations derived from a group of source journals with equal weightage given to all citations irrespective of chronology. As a result, in all these ranking lists, the position occupied by the post-war journals, may not be an accurate index of their demand or usefulness to research workers in the concerned field. This may happen because the quantum of published literature in the new journals is limited by the period for which they have been in existence, which is in many cases less than 20 years. Moreover, many of the post-war journals appearing in all these recent ranking lists have started publication even after 1960s, and their enumerated citations cover in fact a variable period of less than 20 years unlike in the case of pre-war journals. To avoid such discriminating against new journals which necessarily have fewer citation credits Sengupta suggested earlier an off-setting weightage formula which has been applied in this paper to rerank microbiology periodicals. A revised ranking list in the field of microbiology has been recommended in preference to the earlier one compiled by Sengupta. Results and findings, after application of the weightage formula, have been presented and discussed in this paper.

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Absztrakt:

A tanulmány áttekinti a Nemzeti Alaptanterv (Nat) megszületését és annak formálódását (1989–1995, 2003, 2007, 2012, 2018). Bemutatja a Nat megszületésének hazai kronológiáját és annak európai hátterét. Felvillantja az implementáció, az adaptáció tapasztalatait, majd kitér a mai Európa Nat-szerű konstrukcióira, s azok oktatásirányítási szerepére, rávilágítva e szerep alakulásának ingajellegére. Bemutatja az európai értékek – beleértve az Európai Unió értékeinek – a Nat-okban történő megjelenését. Befejezésül a szerző rámutat, hogy a Nat erőket lekötő, sőt fékező fogoly a saját maga képviselte hierarchikus műfajrendszerben.

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Irodalom H odson , F rank Roy 1968 The La Tène Cemetery at Münsingen-Rain . Catalogue and Relative Chronology . Bern

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Abstract

Sive Marten Swarcz seu Martinus Niger alias Marcin Czarny, master of Veit Stoss's Cracow high altar – this is the subtitle of Miklós Mojzer's major two-part study published in 2006 and 2008 in which he identified Master MS and traced the roots of his work to Veit Stoss's Nuremberg and Cracow workshops. He mentioned in passing that at the very same time, in the 1480s, another winged altarpiece was being made in another important town of Frankonia, Rothenburg on the frame of which the following inscription can be read: Frater Martinus Schwartz die Sancte Marie Magdalene complevit. The altarpiece dedicated to the Virgin was once in the monastery of the Dominican nuns in Rothenburg and is now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. Martin Schwarz was the guardian of the Franciscan monastery in Rothenburg from 1485 where he had his workshop fitted out. He was the local leader of the order until 1506.

Recent researches have proven that some statues carved by Tilman Riemenschneider were painted by Martin Schwarz. The starting point for indentification was the identity of the Pressbrokat on the St John figure of the Wiblingen altarpiece and on the clothes of the Virgin figure of the inscribed altarpiece. The same pattern can be found on the fragment of the attire of the Madonna preserved in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts since 1923. Before the museum, the statue was in an altar shrine (now lost). The history of the altarpiece can be retraced with certainty to the village church of Schweinsdorf outside Rothenburg, but tradition associates it with the neighbouring imperial town.

Among the rich documentation on the furnishing of the Jakobskirche mention is made of an altar of the Virgin erected in 1495/96, which was carved by a sculptor of Würzburg – obviously Riemenschneider. The question arises whether the statue painted by Martin Schwarz and datable to the end of the 15th century according to the chronology of the Riemenschneider Madonnas belonged to this altar.

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A tanulmány a római kánonképződés folyamatának bemutatására tesz kísérletet három szöveghely alapján. A kérdés vizsgálatának megkerülhetetlen kiindulópontja Cicero Brutusa, amely az első próbálkozás a római irodalmi teljesítmény összegzésére és a görögökéhez viszonyított értékelésére. Ennek az előzménynek a kontextusában vizsgálom az id. Plinius Naturalis Historiajának (7, 107–117) és Quintilianus Institutiojának (10, 1, 46–131; 12, 10, 1–9) a görög és a római irodalom történetét áttekintő fejezeteit: az alkalmazott módszereket (irodalmi komparatisztika, vizuális analógia), a narratív egységek struktúráját szervező szempontokat (kronológia, korszakolás: görög és római, régi és új, műfajok szerinti csoportosítás), és igen fontos szempontként a szövegek terminológiáját. Mindezek eredményeként kibontakozik a római kánon alakulástörténete, mely a köztársaság korának utolsó századában vette kezdetét és a Flavius-korban teljesedett ki, s amely a világot birtokba vevő Imperium Romanum kulturális identitásának egyik irodalmi formájaként értelmezhető.

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The statement of the defence delivered in the criminal action (causa publica) of Aulus Cluentius Habitus-Cicero’s longest actually delivered speech left to us-is from 66, that is, the year when Cicero was praetor. In certain respect, it is the precious stone of Cicero’s ars oratoria since its narrative is vivid, full of turns like a crime story; events, scenes, planes of time replace one another boldly, sometimes seemingly illogically but, being subordinated to the effect the orator means to attain, in an exactly premeditated sequence. Cluentius was charged, on the one hand, with poisoning his stepfather, Statius Albius Oppianicus. The other part of the charge was founded on the criminal proceedings under which eight years before Cluentius charged Oppianicus with poisoning attempt against him, as a result of which Oppianicus was compelled to go into exile-in the current lawsuit, however, the prosecution brought it up against him that the former court of justice declared Oppianicus guilty purely because Cluentius had bribed the judges. Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis of 81 served as basis for judging crimes that provide grounds for the charge of poisoning; however, the prohibition of bribing judges applied to the order of senators only, and Cluentius belonged to the order of knights. First, we intend to outline the historical background of the oration, so to say, the historical facts of the case (I.); then, we turn our attention to the opportunity of applying statutory facts of the case, i.e. lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficis. (II.) Finally, we examine the rhetorical tools of Cicero’s strategy to explore how the orator handled, modified or distorted the system of the charges and chronology-to support the argument, which can be considered brilliant with a lawyer’s eyes, too. (III.)

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