The article examines the history of the following words found in diplomatic correspondence of Muscovite Russia of the 17th century: vstupan'e 'entry (into); come into smth. (administration, possession); accession to the throne', vygubiti 'kill; exterminate, extirpate; destroy', vyznan´e 'confession; confirmation, evidence', vymogati, vymoci 'extort (from)', vypucen´e 'release; liberation,', vysvobo?(d)en'e 'liberation; discharge', vysluchati 'listen (to)'. The author aims at proving that these intraslavonic derivates are interslavonic borrowings/loanwords in the written Russian language of the second half of the 16th and 17th centuries. The article contains facts proving these words to be Polonisms in the Russian language and “prostaja mova”, the latter, in the author's opinion, appeared to be the mediator when these words were being borrowed by the Russian language. The materials of the article considerably specify the chronology of vstupan´e, vymogati, vymoci, vypucen´e in the Russian written language and it is the first time the words vyznan´e, vysluchati have been discovered in the monuments of the Russian written language by the author of this investigation.
On the coins in the cemetery of the Hungarian commoners at Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb
. The Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb cemetery, in which 540 graves of the Hungarian commoners were unearthed from the 10
centuries, was the richest one in the Carpathian Basin in regard of coins: a hundred and ninety-nine coins were uncovered in 145 graves, mostly of adults, from the period between (Saint) Stephen I (1000–1038) and Stephen II (1116–1131). The majority of the coins were intact; two of them were folded in half. Coins cut to pieces were placed in 48 graves: the fragments either belonged to the same item or they were independent segments. They appeared in three functions in the burial rite: in clusters as perforated coin ornaments (3 graves of children), as burial obols in the mouth or the hands 69 graves and as diverse coin grave-goods 98 graves. The distribution of the graves with coins shows a relative chronology in concentric stripes, where the oldest ones are in the centre. The village that used the cemetery has not yet been identified.
During the last years, the excavation mostly focused on the SE part of the villa. This territory was inhabited or even densely built in all through the existence of the villa. We could more precisely determine the chronology and periodisation of the entire site, which also included the publication and evaluation of the complete coin material of the site.
In the second part of the study, we examine a building of the villa that has been known for decades without being able to determine its function and role. We have already published its details and 3D reconstruction but it has not provoked substantial reaction. Its shape, structure and position within the villa complex and its wider geographical environment suggest that it could be a cold storage, an ice house. This type of building is barely known until the Modern Period. The shape of this building is not typical since was constructed with a different purpose and was only later modified to fit this function. The subterranean part of its structure afforded the observation of minute details. In this study we intend to present our hypothesis.
The article is intended to analyse the temporal and spatial structure unfolding in the book "My Sister - Life". The temporal structure of the book is built on the succession of the four seasons. The seasons - and at times the months as well - have well-defined meanings in Pasternak's poetic system. The temporal structure of the book follows the cyclical order of the calendar year, and the events of a "love story" represent a linear progress in time. Furthermore, in the artistic composition of the book another type of chronology can be revealed, which can be described with the Bergsonian category of internal time, durée. What is crucial and vital for the lyrical hero is the internal correspondence of experiences and phenomena, which interrupts the linear progress of the narrative, as opposed to the external, rational and linear order of things. The spatial structure of the book can be analysed with the help of the voyage motif. Parallel with travelling in the external world a voyage takes place in the internal realm of the lyrical hero's creative memory. The category of time and space are inseparable, interwoven in the course of the voyage and the unfolding of memories. In other words, events that can originally be characterised in temporal terms occur and evolve in the external space, which can be regarded as a poetical reinterpretation of an archaic, mythological space-time model.
Authors:P. Mitchell, W. Schell, A. McGarry, T. Ryan, J. Sanchez-Cabeza, and A. Vidal-Quadras
Six peat cores taken from three unmodified blanket and raised bogs in Ireland were sectioned and analyzed for a range of radionuclides including134Cs,137Cs,238Pu,239Pu,241Am, and210Pb.134Cs and137Cs were measured by high resolution gamma-spectrometry, while the transuranium nuclides were determined after chemical separation by alpha-spectrometry.241Pu, present on the electroplated discs together with Pu(), was measured directly by low-level liquid scintillation counting. Core chronologies were established by measuring the unsupported210Pb component using low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS). From the resulting profiles, relaxation depths and migration rates for the above mentioned radionuclides have been determined and differences in the values of these parameters interpreted.238Pu/239,240Pu and241Pu/239,240Pu ratios have been examined carefully and are discussed in some detail. Finally, the contribution from Chernobyl to the total radiocaesium inventory in each core has been established using the134Cs/137Cs ratio observed in the initial fallout from Chernobyl.
Authors:R. Singhal, M. Venkatesh, D. Wagh, H. Basu, T. Chavan, M. Pimple, and A. Reddy
Downcore variation of trace metals in sediment cores along the coastal line is one of the markers to assess the intrusion
of industrial pollutants into the aquatic environment. Fifty sediment core samples from the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB), were
studied for the trace element content. MHB is a recipient of effluents from different industries situated all along its coast
around Thane–Belapur region. The average concentrations of Titanium (Ti), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu),
Zinc (Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and complemented by analysing with energy
dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In addition to this, depth profiles of K and Ca were also studied to assess the
homogeneity of the geological strata of the region. Trace metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn show enrichment between 16 to 28 cm,
whereas, uniform distribution through out the core was observed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe. Chronology of the heavy metal deposition
was predicated based on the average sedimentation rate (0.92 ± 0.08 cm year−1) derived using depth-wise 137Cs concentration profile in core of bottom sediment. The results of the analysis showed that MHB had received excess inputs
of Cu, Ni and Zn in the year 1981, 1988 and 1982, respectively. Surface concentration of Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe compared to the
reference site indicates moderate pollution in the recent years whereas for elements K, Ca, Ti and Mn, the values are normal
indicating MHB unpolluted for the latter elements.
Ranking lists of periodicals in different scientific disciplines are generally based on the total number of citations derived from a group of source journals with equal weightage given to all citations irrespective of chronology. As a result, in all these ranking lists, the position occupied by the post-war journals, may not be an accurate index of their demand or usefulness to research workers in the concerned field. This may happen because the quantum of published literature in the new journals is limited by the period for which they have been in existence, which is in many cases less than 20 years. Moreover, many of the post-war journals appearing in all these recent ranking lists have started publication even after 1960s, and their enumerated citations cover in fact a variable period of less than 20 years unlike in the case of pre-war journals. To avoid such discriminating against new journals which necessarily have fewer citation credits Sengupta suggested earlier an off-setting weightage formula which has been applied in this paper to rerank microbiology periodicals. A revised ranking list in the field of microbiology has been recommended in preference to the earlier one compiled by Sengupta. Results and findings, after application of the weightage formula, have been presented and discussed in this paper.
A tanulmány áttekinti a Nemzeti Alaptanterv (Nat) megszületését és annak
formálódását (1989–1995, 2003, 2007, 2012, 2018). Bemutatja a Nat
megszületésének hazai kronológiáját és annak európai hátterét. Felvillantja az
implementáció, az adaptáció tapasztalatait, majd kitér a mai Európa Nat-szerű
konstrukcióira, s azok oktatásirányítási szerepére, rávilágítva e szerep
alakulásának ingajellegére. Bemutatja az európai értékek – beleértve az Európai
Unió értékeinek – a Nat-okban történő megjelenését. Befejezésül a szerző
rámutat, hogy a Nat erőket lekötő, sőt fékező fogoly a saját maga képviselte
Sive Marten Swarcz seu Martinus Niger alias Marcin Czarny, master of Veit Stoss's Cracow high altar – this is the subtitle of Miklós Mojzer's major two-part study published in 2006 and 2008 in which he identified Master MS and traced the roots of his work to Veit Stoss's Nuremberg and Cracow workshops. He mentioned in passing that at the very same time, in the 1480s, another winged altarpiece was being made in another important town of Frankonia, Rothenburg on the frame of which the following inscription can be read: Frater Martinus Schwartz die Sancte Marie Magdalene complevit. The altarpiece dedicated to the Virgin was once in the monastery of the Dominican nuns in Rothenburg and is now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. Martin Schwarz was the guardian of the Franciscan monastery in Rothenburg from 1485 where he had his workshop fitted out. He was the local leader of the order until 1506.
Recent researches have proven that some statues carved by Tilman Riemenschneider were painted by Martin Schwarz. The starting point for indentification was the identity of the Pressbrokat on the St John figure of the Wiblingen altarpiece and on the clothes of the Virgin figure of the inscribed altarpiece. The same pattern can be found on the fragment of the attire of the Madonna preserved in the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts since 1923. Before the museum, the statue was in an altar shrine (now lost). The history of the altarpiece can be retraced with certainty to the village church of Schweinsdorf outside Rothenburg, but tradition associates it with the neighbouring imperial town.
Among the rich documentation on the furnishing of the Jakobskirche mention is made of an altar of the Virgin erected in 1495/96, which was carved by a sculptor of Würzburg – obviously Riemenschneider. The question arises whether the statue painted by Martin Schwarz and datable to the end of the 15th century according to the chronology of the Riemenschneider Madonnas belonged to this altar.