Authors:Nobuyuki Shirakawa, Takao Furukawa, Minoru Nomura and Kumi Okuwada
well as technical innovation in the twentieth century. This study identified the global research system for the fields of E&E and information and communication technologies (ICT). To achieve this goal, under the assumption of a definite correlation
The contribution deals with the relations of Attic tragedy and its public according to Aristophanes's "Frogs". First there is evidence that the Greek tragic playwrights address their audience. The fictitious competition then, arranged in "Frogs" between Aeschylus and Euripides in the underworld, displays the requirements of tragic poetry. Notwithstanding their poetic and political differences the rivals of that agon agree with each other on the communicative function of tragedy. Aristophanes proves the great and free attitude which Attic tragedy, engaging for the benefit of the polis, took to its world and its public.
Use of stem cells may transform the medical therapy for acute and chronic heart disease, with a predictable impact rivalling the results of revascularization and device therapies. Many cell types have been studied recently, and promising preclinical and clinical data are available on their efficacy and safety in the setting of various disorders such as arrhythmia and conduction disease. However, there are still many hurdles to be tackled for the routine clinical application of these cells. A better understanding of the biology of stem cells will help in the design of future strategies.
The hypothesis proposed by the author expresses that Zipf's law is only fulfilled on rank distributions which correspond to highly integrated (closed) subject fields. This hypothesis was tested on vast amount of empirical data. It was shown that document files in integrated fields are characterised by thematic, chronological (and sometimes geographical) closedness, as well as closedness by citation. Relationships were found between empirical facts usually considered in isolation within the frameworks of different scientometric and bibliometric theories (the theory of information concentration and scattering, obsolescence theory, theory of changing source productivity).
Authors:Gregory A. Bryant, Pierre Liénard and H. Clark Barrett
When communicating with infants, caregivers often modulate their speech in an effort to make their communicative and informative intentions more clear. Infant-directed (ID) speech differs acoustically from adult-directed (AD) speech, and systematically varies according to different kinds of intentions. This way of speaking to infants is thought to be a species-specific adaptation, as research has documented highly similar patterns in ID speech across a variety of cultures. A recent study has also shown that people from an indigenous non-Western culture (Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador) can reliably discriminate ID speech from AD speech in a language they do not speak, and distinguish between four different intention categories (prohibition, attention, comfort, and approval). The current research attempted to replicate this finding in a traditional African population, the Turkana of northwestern Kenya. In three experiments, we found that Turkana adults were able to discriminate between ID and AD speech produced in English by American mothers, and they could also distinguish between several intention categories in both ID and AD speech. Signal detection analysis revealed that ID speech was marginally more discriminable than AD speech, but overall rate of intention recognition was similar across speech types. These results partially support the hypothesis that ID speech is universally recognizable due to the formfunction relationship between acoustic signals and their communicative purpose, but there were differences in performance between Turkana and Shuar that merit further investigation.