The Constitution comprises general clauses and notions whose meaning it does not specify in detail-and this meaning can be established by Constitutional Court. In the Polish doctrine of Constitutional law, opinions about the legal status of the Preamble are diversified. The dominant view in the contemporary doctrine of Constitutional law is that the Preamble has a normative character. The Constitutional Court has many times drawn upon the provisions of the Preamble in its rulings. The provisions of the Preamble dealing with Constitutional principles and values form a “bridge” between natural law and positivist law, which may be conducive to a fuller protection of human rights in the state, and consequently a better operation of Constitutional democracy. But the higher the frequency of principle- and value-invoking notions in the Constitutional text (usually in the Preamble), the greater and the more real is the authority of those who interpret these notions-and impart sense to them-in conditions of a particular constitutional dispute.
The essay analyses the fourth and fifth amendments of the Hungarian Fundamental Law with special respect to the opinion of the Venice Commission and the resolution of the European Parliament. It will be pointed out that the fourth amendment transferred several legal regulations into the Fundamental Law which were previously qualified as unconstitutional by the Hungarian Constitutional Court. The Fundamental Law contains at the same time the declaration of a fundamental right and the unconstitutional limitation of it by the latter regulation. The inconsistency is evident, therefore the Constitutional Court has to choose in the future between the contradictory constitutional regulations. A possibility to solve this dilemma could be the separation of the legal norms of the constitution as lex generalis (e.g. rule of law, human dignity) and lex specialis which could not derogate the lex generalis, and ca nnot be applied accordingly.
An attempt has been made to assign empirical formulae and possible ion exchange site for the antimonates of Zr(IV), Sn(IV)
and Cr(III). On the basis of analytical data, exchange capacity, infra-red and thermoanalytical investigations these ion exchangers
have the compositions as: ZrO2·0.5 Sb2O5·5.1 H2O, SnO2·2.5 Sb2O5·15 H2O and Cr2O3·5Sb2O5·31 H2O. Water molecules shown is the total water present which includes both water of constitution and water of crystallization.
The H+ attached to anionic part of the exchanger, i.e., Sb−OH is the possible site for cation exchange. However, the general shape
of curves in McKay Plot and the dependence of Kd values on the concentration of metal ions in solution at constant pH suggest
more than single possible exchange site.
This paper reports a comparative study of the non-isothermal decompositions of the heteropolyacids HPM and HPVM, with structures
consisting of Keggin units (KUs). Non-isothermal analysis at low heating rates demonstrated the existence of 4 crystal hydrate
species, depending on the temperature. The stability domains of the anhydrous forms of HPM and HPVM were found to be 150–380°C,
respectively. Processing of the TG curves obtained at different heating rates by the Ozawa method revealed that the decomposition
of anhydrous HPM takes place according to a unitary mechanism, whilst for anhydrous HPVM two mechanisms are observed. Thus,
the first part of the constitution water is lost simultaneously with the departure of vanadium from the KU as VO2+, while the second part is lost at higher temperatures as in the case HPM.
The mixtures of CuCl2 and KC1 with Cu to K molar ratios from 0.2 to 2.0 were analysed by thermogravimetry in air and argon atmosphere under different
conditions. The samples differed in the temperature of their preparation. Conclusions were drawn concerning the phase changes
and the constitution of the CuCl2−KC1 system.
Although the university system in theFRG is largely regulated by the state, the freedom of research, teaching and study guaranteed by the constitution leaves room for competition between the universities. In research, there is competition with institutions outside the universities and with the research departments of large companies. There is also severe competition for the research funds provided by the Federal Government, theDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and German trade and industry. In teaching, research projects are being carried out in order to develop criteria for the measurement of performance. This, together with a system of reporting, will facilitate comparisons and thus encourage competition. TheBMBW has contributed to these processes in teaching and research by funding projects on the development of performance criteria and by preparing legislative measures designed to promote competition.
Most theories of perception assume a rigid relationship between objects of the physical world and the corresponding mental representations. We show by a priori reasoning that this assumption is not fulfilled. We claim instead that all object-representation correspondences have to be learned. However, we cannot learn to perceive all objects that there are in the world. We arrive at these conclusions by a combinatory analysis of a fictive stimulus world and the way to cope with its complexity, which is perceptual learning. We show that successful perceptual learning requires changes in the representational states of the brain that are not derived directly from the constitution of the physical world. The mind constitutes itself through perceptual learning.
High alumina cement (HAC) concrete undergoes with ageing a change in mineral constitution known as conversion which may be accompanied by a loss in strength. The amount by which this change in composition has gone, measured by the ratio of CaO·Al2O3·10 H2O to Al2O3·3 H2O is known as the degree of conversion (Dc). The faster the conversion goes the greater the loss in strength.
institutions would also strengthen the position of the president in relation to the parliament. The 1997 Constitution requires certain corrective measures to remove the errors disclosed in the text. These changes however do not require the adoption of a new