The deoxynivalenol content, presence of kernels infected by
spp. pathogens and the frequency of visually scabby kernels in wheat intended for human consumption were monitored in 2003–2005. About 1000 samples provided by growers from various regions of the Czech Republic were analysed each year. Immunochemical assay ELISA-based kits for the analysis of deoxynivalenol content were employed. In 2003, 2004 and 2005, deoxynivalenol was detected at the maximum levels of 5090 μg.kg
, 18300 μg.kg
and 4437 μg.kg
, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by
spp. pathogens, and percentage of visually scabby kernels. In all years under study, the relationship between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of visually scabby kernels was closer than that between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by
The present paper focuses on the use of old maps and written sources in analyses of the landscape structure and husbandry in the first half of the 19th century. The studied area is situated in the Boletice Military Area in Southern Bohemia (southwest of the Czech Republic). Attention was paid in particular to the area of the former villages of Ondřejov and Chlumany. The maps of the First and the Second Military Surveys, Stable Cadastre, and forestry maps were used for the analysis, together with selected written sources. The results show that ingenious agriculture including mowing, grazing of a notable number of cattle, ploughing and forestry was once characteristic in the area. This paper presents especially the woodland structure in the area and some inconsistencies that were found on the old maps.
There has been an increase in outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and in the number of locally-owned or controlled multinationals in the Czech Republic and Hungary. However, data problems hinder to determine accurately the underlying trends and the main factors behind the changes. Data on outward FDI contain investment realised by all locally operational firms, regardless of their ownership. We rely on newly available balance of payments manual 6 (BPM) data and on company case studies. We show that outward investment by Czech firms must be much higher than what balance of payments data show. Hungary's case is the opposite. The leading Czech and Hungarian foreign investor firms can be categorised as “virtual indirect” foreign investors: they are in majority foreign ownership, but under domestic control. The reason for this special type of firms dominating in outward foreign direct investments can be found in the privatisation technique applied in these countries during the transition process.
The contribution of the so-called ‘New Economy’ to economic growth in developing countries has so far been minimal. Nonetheless, in the longer run the ‘New Economy’ offers great potential for faster economic growth in post-socialist economies. Realising this potential is, however, not automatic. It could be left unharnessed if there is no suitable institutional and economic infrastructure that would allow for adoption, diffusion, and productive use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The paper here will construct a New Economy Indicator (NEI) that measures the levels of preparedness of transition economies for harnessing the potential of ICT to accelerate long-term economic growth and a catching-up with the developed countries. In the NEI ranking Slovenia scored highest; it is followed by the Czech Republic and Hungary. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia–Montenegro (former Yugoslavia) occupy the bottom of the table.
Authors:Marie Rusinová, Miloš Kalousek and Miloš Lavický
Wooden structures are the oldest building elements accompanying man since time immemorial. The Czech Republic is strict in its legal and normative regulations relating to the use of wooden building components. In spite of that the Czech construction market is increasingly returning to wooden houses; not only for dwelling purposes, but also for public amenities. However, the structures made of wood as combustible material have to be carefully assessed especially from the viewpoint of fire safety of the building. This paper deals with the fire safety of wooden structures with special regard to the suspended type of ceiling, as it fulfils the role of insulation against the effects of fire. In particular, the thermal stress caused by fire and its impact upon the safety of the building elements has been investigated.
Authors:I. Svetlik, M. Fejgl, K. Turek, V. Michalek and L. Tomaskova
The Czech Republic has two nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with light water pressurized reactors (LWPR). Annual sampling
of biota for 14C activity monitoring by Nuclear Physics Institute in cooperation with the National Institute of Radiation Protection started
in 2002. We present the results of biota monitoring covering two sampling periods 2002–2005 and 2007–2008. The considerable
problem in the case of biota sampling for monitoring purpose is given by a relatively short period of biota accumulation for
prevailing types of biota samples (leaves of deciduous trees or agricultural plants), which usually lasts from several weeks
to 2 months. The short period of sample accumulation can also be partly overlapped by a service period of reactor outage in
a given NPP. On the base of our several years’ experiences we have changed a type of the sampled material to reduce variations
of observed activities and to precise reference levels in the exposed and reference sites.
Chloupek, O., Hrstkova, P., Schweigert, P. 2004. Yield and its stability, crop diversity, adaptability and response to climate change, weather and fertilization over 75 years in theCzechRepublic in comparison to some European countries. Field Crops
Authors:Bianca Schwarz, Andrea Klang, Barbora Bezdekova, Sára Sárdi, Orsolya Kutasi and Rene Hoven
Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease has been associated with gammaherpesviruses. This case series describes five horses with EMPF. Three of the horses (two in Hungary, one in the Czech Republic) were diagnosed with EMPF ante mortem. They presented with typical clinical signs of EMPF including dyspnoea and weight loss. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxaemia. Blood work showed signs of inflammation like neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenaemia. An endoscopic examination of the respiratory tract including cytology and culture of tracheobronchial secretion and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed, revealing secondary bacterial infection in one case. A suspected diagnosis of EMPF was made on the basis of a positive EHV-5 PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage and the findings of thoracic radiographs and ultrasound examination. In one case the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. All horses died or had to be euthanised despite treatment. Two horses (from Austria) were diagnosed with EMPF post mortem. They not only had EMPF but also concurrent other diseases which seemed to be associated with immunosuppression. Three horses showed the discrete form and two horses the diffuse form of EMPF. EHV-5 DNA was identified in lung tissue of all horses by PCR.
The important glycoalkaloids in potatoes are α-solanine and α-chaconine. Their natural function is probably to serve as stress metabolites or phytoalexins for the protection of the potato when attacked by insects, fungi, etc. They contribute flavour to potatoes but at higher concentrations cause bitterness and are toxic to humans. α-Solanine and α-chaconine appear to have two main toxic actions, one on cell membranes and another one on acetylcholinesterase. Symptoms of α-solanine/α-chaconine poisoning involve an acute gastrointestinal upset with diarrhea, vomiting and severe abdominal pain. An instrumental high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was applied for the quantification of α-solanine and α-chaconine in peeled potato skin, raw potato pulp and cooked peeled potato tubers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for α-solanine and α-chaconine was found to be 5.0 mg kg
for each glycoalkaloid. In this study the factors of potential loss of α-solanine and α-chaconine in potato tubers during peeling (factor=0.8) and cooking into edible stage in salted water (factor=0.8) were examined. The combined loss factor of peeling and cooking for sum of both glycoalkaloids in potato tubers was 0.64. These factors were practically used for the probabilistic exposure assessment of the intake of potato glycoalkaloids in the Czech Republic.
Authors:Jovan Njegić, Dejan Živkov and Jelena Damnjanović
This paper strives to investigate the level of business cycles synchronisation between 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and the EU-15. We use wavelet coherence and phase difference methodology as a very suitable tool that observes simultaneously the strength of business cycles’ co-movement in the aspect of time as well as in the aspect of frequency. The results indicate that the business cycles of CEECs are generally synchronised with the EU-15 business cycles, whereas distinct differences existed before, during, and after the financial crisis (2008–2009) and during the European sovereign debt crisis (2010–2011). In other words, we demonstrate that very strong business cycles synchronisation occurred in almost all CEECs during crisis periods and at higher wavelet scales, while only moderate synchronisation is recorded in relatively tranquil periods at higher frequencies. The results suggest that smaller CEECs, but also larger countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, and to some extent Slovakia as well have a higher level of business cycles synchronisation with the EU-15, particularly in the crisis period at short-run as well as at long-run fluctuations. However, we do not find strong business cycles co-movement in cases of Poland and Latvia via HP and BP filters at higher frequencies during the crisis, which might indicate a higher resistance of these countries to external systemic shocks.