In the Museum of Tata there is an unpublished Roman sarcophagus. Because of the hardly legible inscription it has been unpublished for decades. The sarcophagus was erected by a former beneficiarius to his wife and daughter. The structure of the inscription is very unusual with two clauses because the veteran had bought the sarcophagus when his wife was still alive, later he together with his children buried them both into the sarcophagus. Because of the damaged part two restoration possibilities have been proposed. The sarcophagus was made in a local workshop of Brigetio. The inscription can be dated to the middle of the 3rd century but before the reform of Gallienus in the 260s, as still a senatorial legatus legionis was mentioned.
The kharosthi inscription of Tiravharna ksatrapa (discovered in the southern suburb of Jalalabad in 1923, kept in the Kabul Museum) was set up in honour of the satrap by a man, bearing the Indian name Malasua. The object of the inscription was to commemorate the building of a lotus tank and its inauguration by the ceremony of libation with running water (udagajaladhobuvna) as well as to express the chief desire of the donor to have a son (putrestaparena). Tiravharna was of Indo-Parthian descent and he did not acknowledge the authority of the Saka king Moga, ruling in GandhÊra at that time (83 B. C.)
The tombstone of an Avar prince was discovered on Margaret-island in 1992. A runic inscription, written in the Yenissei Turk script and in Turkic language, can be read on it. Its text runs as follows: er atïm Kümüš ïnanč tudun. Ešim elim … ebim … ki(t)tim “My heroic name is Kümüš ïnanč tudun. I left my fellows, my people … my family (= I passed away)”. The inscription can be regarded as a decisive proof that the Avars spoke a Turkic language and that they came from the Yenissei region and had nothing to do with the Juan-juans.
Many of the Urartian
inscriptions contain references to the ritual praxis of the Urartians. These
inscriptions deal with the foundation of cities, fortresses or agricultural
projects. According to the texts, many ritual activities had been prescribed
step by step, when a part of an establishment was finished. Many of them refer
to the yearly agricultural activities or the calendar, e.g. the budding or
harvesting. There are phrases in these ritual contexts furthermore, which are
opposed to each other, e.g. “deserted”, “inhabited” or “enemy”, “own”. The
study compares the ritual processes that are attached to the meaning of
different ritual transitions and binary opposites.
The exact meaning of Tiberiéum in the first line of Pontius Pilate's inscription has been studied since 1961. Epigraphists have generally explained it as "a building dedicated to Tiberius", although in view of the -iéum ending it could also be interpreted as "a festival dedicated to Tiberius". Imperial games called Tiberion and Tibereon are also known from other sources. If Tiberiérum is identified with games or festivals held in honour of Tiberius, the first word of the inscription can perhaps be the one - munus - proposed by Labbé. The occasion for holding these imperial games was most likely the fall of Seianus (October 18,31) that became an official holiday throughout the Imperium.
The Tarragona Museum is in possession of a gem engraved with a satyr-citharode dressed as Hercules (Nr. 7543). The gem, according to the inscription, is the work of Scylax, an engraver at the court of Claudius and Nero. With the figure of the satyr-citharode, Scylax expressed his disapproval of Nero, the tyrant who proclaimed himself a great sportsman and artist.
The Natural History of Pliny the Elder contains several allusions to the first century Roman society. These allusions can extend our knowledge based on inscriptions and ancient authors. We can get more information about prices and wages in Pliny’s age, and also interesting contribution to the social status of senatores, equites, liberti, and women.
Near Csákvár, in the so-called Báraczháza cave there are relics of an antique Diana cult. A number of inscriptions can be found before and within the cave system, part of them known from the 18
c., part of them unpublished. The two main passages of the cave seem to have been the sanctuary. In the left passage the Diana idol carved into the stone remained, its iconography is nearly unique, and fits to a provincial cult based on pre-Roman, Celtic or Pannon background. At the end of the right passage there is a strange short inscription with a phallic symbol scratched into the wall, which may refer to the divine pair of the local Diana goddess, called most likely Silvanus. The statue and some inscriptions were made, and consequently the sanctuary was certainly used in the Severan Era, and probably remained in use until the later 4
c., when the spreading Christianity must have finished the cult, although the possible Christograms in the walls of the cave cannot be taken doubtless as signs for that; the cave contains some early New Age inscriptions too.