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Experimental models that mimic the clinical syndrome of human viral encephalitis and represent HSV-1 neurotropism were utilized to investigate neuro-pharmacologic changes mediating clinical and behavioral manifestations of encephalitic infection of the central nervous system with HSV-1-induced rapid activation of the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenocortical (HPA) axis and production of brain derived interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2), independently of viral replication. HSV-1 infection induced clinical signs of fever, motor hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. These manifestations were dependent on a permissive action of circulating glucocorticoids and not related to the degree of viral replication in the brain. Hyperthermia and HPA axis activation were also specifically dependent on HSV-1-induced brain IL-1 and PG-E2. The chronic neurological sequel or fatal outcome of HSV-1 encephalitis may be due to viral replication and brain tissue destruction, which are dependent on virus encoded virulence genes. In contrast, the clinical and behavioral signs in the acute phase are a result of activation of neurochemical systems, including cytokines, prostaglandinds and catecholamines. Circulating glucocorticoids play an essential role in mediating the physiologic actions of HSV-1-induced brain products and the clinical syndrome of encephalitis.

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Radiolabeled molecules have an important role to evaluate tumor characteristics such as aggressiveness, and to identify the effectiveness of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Various radionuclide (18F, 99mTc, 124I) labeled molecules can be used apoptosis detection by estimating decrescendos cell viability after therapy. 99mTc-tetrofosmin which is used as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent in routine and at the same time is known to accumulate in various tumors including breast tumor. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 99mTc-tetrofosmin for monitoring the early response of MCF-7 breast cancer to chemotherapy. To evaluate the role of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in vitro chemotherapy, the uptake ratio was determined using MCF-7 breast cancer line after the cells had been treated with cisplatin. When we examined the apoptotic ratios which induced with different dose of cisplatin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by using Annexin V and TUNEL methods, it was observed that the rate of apoptosis increased with soaring dose. The uptake rates of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in MCF-7 cell line in the chemotherapeutic groups were lower than it is in the control group (p < 0.01). The negative correlation between uptake ratios and apoptotic rates shows that 99mTc-tetrofosmin may be used a radiopharmaceutical for evaluating chemotherapy response. 99mTc-tetrofosmin might be probably useful as an imaging agent for estimation of early chemotherapy response in breast cancer.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Anikó Smudla, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Levente Gergely, Marina Varga, Éva Toronyi, Attila Doros, Tamás Mándli, Zsuzsanna Arányi, Enikő Bán, Enikő Sárváry, László Kóbori, and János Fazakas

Abstract

The complications caused by the rarely viral infections are more frequently treated in ICU (intensive care unit). The world paid attention to the WNV (West Nile virus) infections only in 1999, when 62 meningoencephalitis were registered in New York State. Six cases of WNV occur annually in Hungary. The authors present the first transplanted Hungarian patient with WNV encephalitis. The patient was hospitalized with epigastric pain, diarrhea, continuous fever, and decreasing amount of urine. The first checkup of infectious diseases was without any result. Although using of empirical antimicrobal therapy, the multiorgan failure patient remained febrile. On the basis of clinical signs, meningitis or encephalitis was suspected despite negative results of repeated cultures. On the 8th day, WNV infection was confirmed by serological examinations. With intravenous immunoglobulin therapy used within confines of supportive treatment, the patient became afebrile. After 21 days in ICU with good graft function, the patient was moved to the ward and he left the hospital after two more weeks. Until now, no prophylactic or etiological treatment has been developed for WNV. The early treatment is done with immunoglobulin or interferon; otherwise therapy has only supportive function. The disease caused by virus is more aggressive in transplanted patients and could be caused death.

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Disturbances are important drivers in natural ecosystems, affecting the vegetation structure and functioning. Invasions of exotic plant species are often associated to disturbances in a complex manner, because they depend on the type, intensity, spatial and temporal arrangement of disturbances, and the particular abiotic and biotic context. Field studies that evaluate the dynamics of plant invasions under different disturbance regimes have a great importance for the understanding of the disturbance effects on invasion spread. In this work we evaluated, through a field manipulative experiment, the early colonization and expansion dynamics of an aggressive invader of grasslands, Hieracium pilosella L., under two disturbance types. We used a split-plot experiment by crossing three levels for a local, sporadic, of increasing intensity disturbance [i.e., 1- undisturbed, 2- vegetation mowing, and 3- ploughing], within two levels for an extensive and chronic disturbance (i.e., grazed and ungrazed). In the range of intensities of disturbance evaluated, the intermediate intensity (i.e., mowing) accelerated the colonization when it is grazed and the expansion of H. pilosella in ungrazed condition. In contrast, lower and higher intensity disturbances, such as ungrazed and ploughing treatments decelerated both invasion processes. Changes in resource availability, interspecific competition and particular characteristics of the invader, i.e., high light requirements, prostrate growth and the presence of stolons, could explain these early invasion patterns.

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A malignus melanoma pigmentsejtekből kiinduló, későn felfedezve igen agresszív, folyamatosan növekvő incidenciájú, bármely korosztályt érintő daganatos megbetegedés. Leggyakoribb formája meglévő hajlamosító tényezők (bőr-, szem-, hajszín, anyajegyek, pozitív családi anamnézis) talaján hozzáadódó környezeti faktorok (napégés) hatására a kültakarón, vagyis minden orvos számára könnyen vizsgálható helyen alakul ki. Sikeres kezelésének alapja továbbra is a korai diagnózis és műtéti eltávolítás. Áttétek jelentkezésekor a klasszikus, bár melanoma esetén csekély sikerrel kecsegtető kemo- és sugárterápia mellett, illetve helyett ma már új, molekuláris genetikai kutatásokon alapuló célzott terápiás szerek, valamint a gátolt tumorellenes immunválaszt a fék alól felszabadító immunterápiás gyógyszerek is rendelkezésre állnak. Az összefoglaló közleményben a szerzők régi és új ismereteket igyekeznek rendszerezni és terjeszteni, bármely, a téma iránt mélyebben érdeklődő gyógyító szakma képviselőjének átnyújtani. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(15), 583–591.

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Ritual public humiliation

Using pragmatics to model language aggression

Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors: Dániel Z. Kádár and Puyu Ning

Abstract

This paper investigates cases in which people who are perceived to have violated a major communal and/or social norm are humiliated in public in a ritual way. As a case study we examine online videos drawn from the Chinese videosharing site Youku. Humiliation as a form of punishment has been thoroughly studied in sociology (see e.g., the seminal work of Foucault 1977). This interest is not coincidental, considering that studying humiliation may provide insight into the operation of shame as a punitive phenomenon, as well as the role of publicity and complex participation structures when shame is inflicted on others. Yet, punitive humiliation has been understudied in pragmatics; in particular, little research has been done on cases in which it is not an institutionally/socially ratified person (e.g., a judge) but the members of the public who inflict humilation. The study of this phenomenon contributes to the present Special Issue as it demonstrates that pragmatics provides a powerful tool to model the dynamics of (language) behaviour such as humiliation that might be difficult to capture by using more conventional linguistic approaches. We demonstrate that while ritual public communal humiliation tends to be highly aggressive, it also shows noteworthy recurrent (meta)pragmatic similarities with institutionalised forms of punishment.

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Abstract  

Although nature looms large throughout Homer’s Odyssey, literary critics have entirely neglected to discuss his construction of the natural world in this foundational Western work. This neglect might be the result of two factors: the blurred line between geographical and fantastical locales in Odysseus’ travels and the blurred line between natural forces and deities. This essay recognizes that Homer not only reconstructs the Mediterranean world in his epic through detailed references to weather, geology, plants, birds, and animals but also that his similes suggest a consciousness of inter-species relationships. Principally, however, this essay argues, as does William Cronon, that “relationships, processes, and systems are as ecological as they are cultural,” and that Odysseus’ response to nature may usefully be understood in relation to three ecocritical models: the anthropocentric or domination model, the stewardship model, and the biomorphic model. His exploitative and aggressive behavior toward the Cyclopes, Circe, and the cattle of the Sun is contrasted with his recognition upon his homecoming of his own animal nature and his appreciation of the agrarian and pastoral life. While the tradition of writing in The Odyssey genre has vigorously continued in Western literature, only recently have contemporary environmental writers moved toward a recognition of the threat of the anthropocentric perspective to the imperative of working toward the stewardship and biomorphic models.

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Two separate studies were undertaken of the personality characteristics associated with research creativity and teaching effectiveness in university psychology professors. In the first study, 52 professors at The University of Western Ontario were evaluated on 29 trait dimensions using four assessment techniques: faculty peer ratings, student ratings, self ratings, and objective questionnaires. A composite criterion of research creativity was generated from publication and citation counts. A composite for teaching effectiveness was created from 5 years of archival data based on formal student evaluations. The personality measures demonstrated considerable convergence across modes of assessment for many traits. In turn, several traits differentiated between most and least creative researchers and most and least effective teachers. A second study, using a self report survey sent to 400 professors in graduate psychology departments at 9 Canadian universities, revealed substantial replications of the findings of Study 1. Limiting ourselves to those personality traits that reliably loaded on Research and Teaching factors in both studies, we may describe the creative researcher as ambitious, enduring, seeking definiteness, dominant, showing leadership, aggressive, independent, non-meek, and non-supportive. The effective teacher is best described as liberal, sociable, showing leadership, extraverted, nonanxious, objective, supporting, non-authoritarian, non-defensive, intelligent, and aesthetically sensitive.

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The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized tri-layer structure with unique functional properties. Podocyte dysfunction and cytoskeletal disorganization leads to disruption of the slit diaphragma, and proteinuria. Inflammatory diseases involving the kidney as well as inherited podocytopathies or diabetic nephropathy cause injury of the podocyte network. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity that is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria in both adults and children. Several causative genes have been identified in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Mutations of the transient receptor potential canonical-6 (TRPC6), a non-selective cation channel that is directly activated by diacylglycerol (DAG), cause a particularly aggressive form of FSGS. Angiotensin II, acting through its AT1 receptor, plays a critical role in generation of proteinuria and progression of kidney injury in a number of kidney diseases, including FSGS. Mounting evidence suggest the central role of TRPC6 and perhaps other TRPC channels in the pathogenesis of FSGS as well as of acquired forms of proteinuria such as diabetic nephropathy or hypertension. Identification of signaling pathways downstream of TRPC6 may provide novel targets for the treatment of proteinuria and prevent progression of podocyte injury.

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Abstract

The Hungarian and Polish observations show how the use of the public law is limited in illiberal constitutional states. This paper claims that certain non-legal reasons for effective successful transformation to an illiberal state, such as the emergence of populist rhetoric and morality; the clear lack of political self-restraint and the inability or unwillingness of the people to form a strong and capable civil society or to raise their voice against extreme views or resist an aggressive and clearly unfounded political campaign, have been pre-determined and influenced by the historical and socio-psychological particularities of the nations in question. If this is indeed the case, this may offer another, though obviously non-conclusive, explanation as to why public law measures and mechanisms have failed to preserve liberal democracy.

The paper concludes that overturning illiberal constitutionalism by either political or constitutional and legal means, at the present time, seems doubtful, if not impossible. The historically and psychologically determined national and constitutional identities of Hungary and Poland are not apt to nurture liberal constitutionalism in the long term.

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