A real-time PCR assay was evaluated for the rapid detection (10 h) of
in meats using molecular beacon probes available as a commercial kit (iQ-Check, Bio-Rad laboratories). Raw (chicken, pork) and ready-to-eat (RTE) meats were artificially contaminated with
serovar Typhimurium at the estimated level of 2 to 4 cells per 25 g. After 8 h of pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water, a molecular beacon-based PCR assay was performed to detect contamination in raw and RTE meats. The sensitivity and accuracy of the assay were compared with the conventional USDA microbiological procedure. Comparative evaluation of the USDA procedure with the rapid PCR assay for meat samples (n = 63) revealed 1 false negative pork sample with the PCR assay. All uninoculated controls (n = 34) but one sample were negative by both the 10-h PCR assay and the USDA procedure. Developing rapid pathogen detection methods with shorter pre-enrichment times (8-h) and real-time data monitoring capabilities will benefit the industry in preventing recall of contaminated meats by stopping the contaminated products from being introduced into the marketplace.
Authors:M. Reiter, H. Volkmann, U. Imianovsky, M. Lopez, L. Medina and R. Jordano
The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in refrigerated and frozen chicken parts was investigated, using the Mini-Vidas™ system (bioMérieux). Two hundred and eigthy chicken parts were tested: 40 skin samples from the breast and leg, 120 samples from refrigerated wings, breasts and legs and 120 samples from frozen wings, breasts and legs (40 of each). The 219 samples tested positive (78.21%). The parts with the highest incidence were frozen breasts (100%) and wings (95%). In frozen legs, the values were lower (60%). In refrigerated parts, the incidence was higher in breasts (85%) and in wings (80%). In legs samples, similarly to the frozen ones, the incidence was lower (50%). In the skin of the breasts and legs, the incidence was 77.50%. Statistical evaluation demonstrated that there are no differences between frozen breasts and wings but there are differences between similar refrigerated parts. The refrigerated and frozen legs are the only parts that are statistically equal. The percentages that were detected show the importance of requiring the absence of Listeria spp. in chickens.
Authors:Z. Idiri, M. Siad, B. Kaddari, L. Omari, M. Seghir and A. Zerrouki
Simultaneous determination of N, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca and Fe in chicken dung and dates was carried out using fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) with a SAMES J25 neutron generator. The activities were measured with a 72 cm3 high purity germanium detector using the relative method. The accuracy was checked with the aid of a standard reference material of milk powder A11 supplied by the IAEA. For the nitrogen contents, the results were compared to those obtained by the classical KJELDAHL method.
Authors:M. I. Oshtrakh, O. B. Milder, V. A. Semionkin, L. I. Malakheeva and P. G. Prokopenko
Characterization of iron storage proteins in liver and spleen from normal chicken and chicken with lymphoid leukemia in comparison
with human liver ferritin were considered by Mössbauer spectroscopy (preliminary results). Small differences in Mössbauer
hyperfine parameters for both normal and lymphoid leukemia chicken liver and spleen were observed. The value of quadrupole
splitting for human liver ferritin was higher than those for chicken tissues. A decrease of iron content in lymphoid leukemia
chicken tissues was also found, however, the reason of this fact (pathology or feeding) was not clear yet.
Authors:R. Ozao, T. Okabe, T. Arii, Y. Nishimoto, Y. Cao, N. Whitely and W.-P. Pan
Summary An odorless woodceramics (CH800), which was prepared by carbonizing chicken wastes with phenolic resin, was characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. CH800 was found to consist mainly of amorphous carbon (non-graphitizing carbon) as studied by XRD. Differing from carbonized chicken waste, CH800 was completely free of unfavorable smell. The source of strong smell of carbonized chicken waste was studied by using TG-DTA combined with EGA technique using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA/GC-MS). As a result, it was found that CH800 was completely free of compounds having strong smell, i.e., ethanol, acetonitrile, pyridine, styrene, benzonitrile and benzofuran, whereas carbonized chicken waste contained all of these compounds.
Authors:Petra Jazbec, Andrej Šmidovnik, Mateja Puklavec, Mitja Križman, Jernej Šribar, Luka Milivojević and Mirko Prošek
Coenzyme Q10, an essential factor of oxidative phosphorylation and an important antioxidant, is used as food additive in industrial production of poultry meat. In this study chickens were fed with water-soluble coenzyme Q10-β-cyclodextrin complex for 40 days and the distribution of CoQ10 and cholesterol in the chicken-breast cells was then measured. Cell fractions were analyzed by HPTLC and results were confirmed with a new HPLC-MS method. Both methods are suitable for quantitative evaluation, but HPTLC is particularly suitable for screening purposes. Validation revealed HPTLC is a reliable, sensitive, and flexible analytical tool in comparison with HPLC-MS, despite its inherently lower sensitivity and selectivity.
EuCl3 was applied intravenously /1 mg kg–1 body weight/ to chicken. Tissue samples of chicken /blood, liver, spleen, fat, pancreas, kidney, lung, breast muscle, brain, femur, testes/ were analyzed for europium concentration. High europium concentrations were found in liver /54.08 ppm/, in spleen /16.44 ppm/ after 24 h and femur /3.28 ppm/ 7 d after application. This experiment shows that accumulation of europium occurs in the yolk of eggs after application of EuCl3 to egg-laying hens /1 mg kg–1 body weight/ during 37 d.
Authors:S. Atta, A. Sattar, A. Ahmad, I. Ali, S.A. Nagra and T. Ahmad
Chicken and fish have been investigated for the detection of radiation treatment using thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The samples were irradiated by 60Co gamma-source at the absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy. TL response of treated and untreated samples in the temperature range of 50–300 °C was measured using TL reader with a temperature profile of 10 °C/s. The results revealed that TL values increased with temperature and maximum signal were obtained at 195 °C, in each case. It was also observed that the TL intensities enhanced with the absorbed doses (1–5 kGy) and the increase was dependent on the absorbed dose. From this study it is concluded that the TL technique is a rapid, simple and promising method for identifying chicken and fish treated with gamma-irradiation.